Aptas

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Ing Aptas (Internet) metung yang pangyatung sistema da reng mituglung-tuglung a computer networks a gagamit king standard Internet protocol suite (a maralas dang ausan TCP/IP, dapot e deng eganagana gagamit king TCP) ba lang pagsilbian deng bilyun-bilyung talagamit king mabilug a yatu. Metung yang network da reng network a bibilugan da reng milyun-milyung pribadu, publiku/ pangmalda, pangpipagaralan o akademiku, pangnegosyu ampong pangkapamahalan a network, a maki saklong panglokal o pangyatu, a mituglung-tuglung kapamilatan ning maleparan a ayus da reng teknolohiyang elektroniku, alang-kawad (wireless) ampong optical a teknolohiyang pang-network. Ing Aptas magdala yang maleparan a sukad o saklo da reng kasangkapan ampong serbisyu o kasuyuan, alimbawa deng tuglung-tuglung a dokumetu o kasulatan a hypertext ning World Wide Web (WWW) ampo ing information infrastructure a susuporta king e-mail.

Deng keraklan kareng tradisyunal a media, kayabe ya ing teleponu, musika, pelikula, ampong telebisyon alilan no balangkas o mibabayu la kapamlatan ning Aptas, at iti panibatan da reng bayung serbisyu antimo ing Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) ampong Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Deng pahayagan o diariu, libru ampong aliwang limbagan makibage la kig teknolohiyang pang-Web site, o magi lang blogging ampong web feed. Gewa nong maliari o posibli ning Aptas deng bayung uri da reng pamiugnayan da reng tau kapamilatan na ning instant messaging, porum a pang-Aptas, ampong social networking. Meragul e me nanu ing pamanyali king Aptas (online shopping) kareng mangaragul a pipanyalwan ampo reng mangalating artisan ampong negosyanti. Deng serbisyung pangpisalapyan ampong ugnayan da reng negosyu king Aptas makayapektu la kareng supply chain a sasaklo kareng kabilugan da reng industria.

Miraras ing pamagmula o umpisa ning Aptas king dekada ning 1960, nung kapilan pepatikdo ne ning kapamahalan ning Estados Unidos kasaup la reng grupung pribadu ampong pang-negosyu bang gawang masikan a computer network a magpaintulut-pamagkamali ampong pirakeng computer network (robust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks) . Ing pamagpondu ning metung a bayung Galudgud-Aptas (Internet backbone) ning National Science Foundation anyang dekadang 1980, ampo ing pribadung pamagpondu kareng aliwang galudgud a pangnegosyu, migdala king pangyatung pamakkyabe king pamanalkus (development) da reng teknolohiyang pang-networking, ampo ing pamiugne da reng dakal a network. Uli ning komersyalisasyun ning metung a ugnayang pangyatu na anyang dekadang 1990 (international network), migbunga king kayang pangasikat ampong pamaglub king alus balang aspetung ning makabayung bie ning tau. Anyang 2011, maigit na king 2.2 bilyung tau – alus metung a katlu ning populasyun ning yatu — ing gagamit kareng serbisyu ning Aptas.[1]

Ala yang sentral a pamanibala ing Aptas king pamagpalyari na man ning teknolohiya o kareng patakaran ning pamanabut ampong pamangamit (access and usage); ing balang network atin yang sariling standard. Bukud mung deng makasaklong kabaldugan (overreaching definitions) da reng adwang manimunang name space king Aptas, ing espasyung Internet Protocol address ampo ing Domain Name System, panibalan na la ning organisasyun a magmantini, ing Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Ing teknikal a pangabalangkas The (technical underpinning) ampong standardization da reng sistemang pangbusal of the (core protocols) a (IPv4 ampong IPv6) obra ne ning Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), metung a aguman a e magtubu (non-profit organization) da reng malubak pamiugneng kayanib nung nu ya malyaring makiugnayan ing ninuman kapamilatan ning pamanambag kabiasnan a teknikal (technical expertise) .

Lon la murin[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

Dalerayan[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

  1. [http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm Internet World Stats], updated 31 March 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.

Suglung palwal[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

Aguman[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

Commission Information Society]

and related information, including information from many creators of the Internet

Artikulu, libru ampong pahayagan[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

journal on the Internet established in 1996 as a Great Cities Initiative of the University Library of the [[University of Illinois at Chicago]], ISSN: 1396-0466

Rise of the Network Society], Manual Castells, Wiley-Blackwell, 1996 (1st ed) and 2009 (2nd ed), ISBN 978-1-4051-9686-4

Internet: Changing the Way We Communicate"] in [http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/index.jsp America's Investment in the Future], National Science Foundation, Arlington, Va. USA, 2000

“Lessons from the History of the Internet”], Manuel Castells, in The Internet Galaxy, Ch. 1, pp 9–35, Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 978-0-19-925577-1 ISBN10: 0-19-925577-6

the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media Vienna, 2004

Internet Explained], Vincent Zegna & Mike Pepper, Sonet Digital, November 2005, Pages 1 - 7.

"How Much Does The Internet Weigh?]", by Stephen Cass, [[Discover (magazine)|Discover]], 2007

"The Internet spreads its tentacles"], Julie Rehmeyer, Science News, Vol. 171, No. 25, pp. 387–388, 23 June 2007

Lorenzo Cantoni & Stefano Tardini, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 978-0-203-69888-4