Insulin

Ibat king Wikipedia
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Insulin
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Insulin crystals

Other names: insulin
Genetic data
Locus: Chr. 11 p15.5
Gene code: HUGO/INS
Gene type: Protein coding
Protein Structure/Function
Molecular Weight: 5808 (Da)
Structure: Solution Structure of Human pro-Insulin Polypeptide
Protein type: insulin familia
Functions: glucose regulation (mamatinyan ne mayumu keng katawan)
Domains: INS domain
Motifs: SP motif
Other
Taxa expressing: Homo sapiens; homologs: in metazoan taxa from invertebrates to mammals
Cell types: kundilat: beta cells na ning Islets na ning Langerhans
Subcellular localization: extracellular fluids
Covalent modifications: glycation, proteolytic cleavage
Pathway(s): Insulin signaling pathway (KEGG); Type II diabetes mellitus (KEGG); Type I diabetes mellitus (KEGG); Maturity onset diabetes of the young (KEGG); Regulation of actin cytoskeleton (KEGG)
Receptor/Ligand data
Antagonists: glucagon, steroids, most stress hormomes
Medical/Biotechnological data
Diseases: familial hyperproinsulinemia, Diabetes mellitus
Pharmaceuticals: insulin (Humulin Novolin), insulin lispro (Humalog), insulin aspart (Novolog), insulin detemir (Levemir), insulin glargine (Lantus), etc
Database Links
Codes: Template:EntrezGene; Template:OMIM; Template:UniProt; Template:RefSeq

Ing Insulin (ibat keng Latin insula, "pulu", nung nu magagawa ya king Islets of Langerhans keng kundilat) metung yang anabolic polypeptide hormone nung nu mamantinyan ne ing metabolismu ning carbohydrate. Bukud keng primerang agenti keng carbohydrate homeostasis, atin yang uyab keng metabolismu ning pangataba at iti alilan ne ing gagawan ning ate keng pamanyimpan at pamipalual ning glucose o mayumu at king procesu na ning lipid na ning daya at aliwa pang tissue kalupa na ning taba at laman ning katawan. Ing dakal ning insulin keng dudurut atin yang uyab keng mabilug a katawan.

Ing Insulin magagamit ya keng medicina para uluan la reng sakit a diabetes mellitus. Deng patienti a atin type 1 diabetes mellitus manalig la keng insulin manibat kilual (keraklan injectiunan dala keng lalam ning balat) para kumabie la uli ning kakulangan na ning insulin hormone. Deng patienti atin type 2 diabetes mellitus atin lang insulin resistance, mababa keng pamangawang insulin, o kaya pareu; deng aliwang type 2 diabetics mangailangan lang insulin ustung deng aliwang panulu magkulang la keng pamagmantini keng mayumu keng daya.

Ing Insulin atin yang 51 amino acid residues at atin yang molecular weight a 5808 Da.


Ing balangkas ning insulin manaliwa yang bagya kareng species da reng animal. Ing insuling ibat kareng animal manaliwa yang bagya ing pamagmintini na karas keng sikan (itang, keng carbohydrate metabolism) kareng tau uli daring pamanaliwa. Deng insulin ning babi malapit ya kareng tau a uri.

Pangabalu at panga-uri[mag-edit | edit source]

Inyang 1869 y Paul Langerhans, metung a magaral keng medicina king Berlin, manigaral ya kareng balangkas na ning kundilat (itang malambutlambut a gland gulut ning dungus) lalam ning microscope inyang abalu no retang dating e mapapansin a tissue bukul-bukul a makakalat king mabilug a kundilat. Ing agagawa da ring "little heaps of cells," kaibat mebalu bilang Islets of Langerhans, era pa balu, dapot y Edouard Laguesse kaibat ing munikala na mapalyaring papalual lang katas a maglaso keng pengan. Ing anak nang Paul Langerhans', y Archibald, ya mu rin sinaup yang mikaintindi king nanu ing gagawan na ning insulin.

Inyang 1889, ing Polish-German physician Oscar Minkowski king pamianiban da keng gawa ri Joseph von Mering leko re ing kundilat keng masikan a asu at lewen de nung nanu ing kayang gagawan keng pamaglaso keng pamangan. Kaibat ning milabas a dakal aldong milako ya ing kundilat ning asu, y Minkowski a talaingat a asu, apagumasdan na deng lango kakanan da ing imi ning asu. Inyang sinuri da ing imi ikit da ing atin mayumu ing imi ning asu, at makanyan dang apagumasdan na atin relasyun o kasapni ing kundilat at ing diabetes. Inyang 1901, metung pang maragul a takbang ing apalyari nang Eugene Opie, nung nu mesala na ing ugnayan da ring Islets of Langerhans at diabetes: Diabetes mellitus ... sangkan ning pangasira ning islets of Langerhans at malilyari ustung dake ning katawan masira la, ing mabilug o ditak a dake man. Bayu keng kayang salisik at obra, ing ugnayan da ring kundilat at diabetes masala na, dapot e naman ing tutung pake da ring mgalating pulu (islets).

The structure of insulin. The left side is a space-filling model of the insulin monomer, believed to be biologically active. Carbon is green, hydrogen white, oxygen red, and nitrogen blue. On the right side is a cartoon of the insulin hexamer, believed to be the stored form. A monomer unit is highlighted with the A chain in blue and the B chain in cyan. Yellow denotes disulfide bonds, and magenta spheres are zinc ions.



Computer-generated image of insulin hexamers highlighting the threefold symmetry, the zinc ions holding it together, and the histidine residues involved in zinc binding.

Suglung Palwal[mag-edit | edit source]