Tanaman

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Adiantum pedatum (a fern)

Metung la kareng pekamaragul a grupu da reng mabibye reng Tanaman (manga 300,000 a species, kayabe no reng balu tamung organismu anti reng dutung, sampaga, dikut ampong pakû. Pinitna nong Aristotle deng eganaganang mabibye kareng tanaman, a keraklan e gagalo at alang dakeng makapanamdam king paligid da (sensory organs), ampo reng animal. Ketang sistema nang Linnaeus, deni reng meging Kingdoms a Vegetabilia (a meging Plantae) ampong Animalia. Manibat kanita, abalu rang detang sadyang mabibilang kareng Plantae myayaliwa la palang grupung e mikakamaganak, at kewani do reng fungi at mapilan a grupu da reng alga bang gawang bayung kingdom. Nanupata, ating kabilyan a mituturing la pa muring tanaman deti. Ing tutu, e magsilbi ing sanumang tangkang ibili ya king metung a taxon o grupu ing “tanaman” uling e malino pangalarawan o panga-isplika iti, at ala yang kaugnayan o pamisuglung kareng konseptung batayan ning makabayung ciencia ning taxonomy.

Deng Embryophyte[mag-edit | edit source]

Lon ya ing main article king Deng Embryophytes

Ing kilalang dili ila pin deng multicellular a tanaman king gabun, a awsan dang embryophyte. Kayabe la kareti deng vascular plant, tanaman a kumpletu bulung, tangke, ampong yamut. Kayabe la rin keti reng mapilan kareng mangalapit dang kamaganak, a awsan dang bryophyte, nung nu deng moss ing pekakilala.

All of these plants have eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose, and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis, using light and carbon dioxide to synthesize food. About three hundred plant species do not photosynthesize but are parasites on other species of photosynthetic plants. Plants are distinguished from [[green alga]]e, from which they evolved, by having specialized reproductive organs protected by non-reproductive tissues. Atin la ngang eukaryotic a celula deng eganaganang kareng tanaman a reti, a maki cell wall a gawa king cellulose. Keraklan karela, akukwa ra ing karelang enerhiya king photosynthesis, nung nu la gagamit salâ at carbon dioxide bang gawang pamangan. Ating manga atlung dalan a species da reng tanaman a e darapat photosynthesis, nun e parasitiku la kareng aliwang species da reng tanaman a photosynthetic. Ing pamiyaliwa da reng tanaman kareng [[:en:green algage|aluntyan a algae]], nung nu la menibatan, itang atin lang specialized reproductive organ o dakeng makaparikil king pamiparakal, a mipapaindurutan (antimong proteksyon) da reng non-reproductive a tissue.

Minuna lang linto reng bryophyte kanitang bandang umpisa ning panaun a Palaeozoic. Mabibye la mu kareng lugal a mamasa-masa, at malati la king kabilugan ning karelang bye. Dadalan la king alternation of generations. Maki haploid a parti ning kayang bye a awsan dang gametophyte, at atin namang diploid a parti, itang sporophyte.

Minuna lang linto reng vascular a tanaman kanitang panaun a Silurian. Anyang datang ing Devonian, merakal nong uri deti at mikalat no kareng dakal a myayaliwang kapaligiran king gabun. Atin lang mapilan a pamakibage (adaptation) king paligid a sinaup karelang magtagumpe laban karetang kakulangan da reng bryophyte. Kayabe ya kareti ing cuticle (pekabalat) a magsilbing sabat king pangalangi, at vascular tissue a magdalang danum king kabilugan ning tanaman. Marlas, mabibye ya antimong aliwang tanaman ing sporophyte, kabang manatili yang malati ing gametophyte.

Ing penibatan (phylogeny) da remg makabayung Spermatophyta (tanaman a maki butul) ampo reng kamaganak dang grupung vascular. Pansinan mung deng spore-bearing vascular plants paraphyletic la nung kareng tanaman a maki butul, at mas malapit la reng pakú o fern (Pteridophyta) kareng tanaman a maki butul kesa kareng clubmoss (Lycopodiophyta)

.

Linto la kanitang tawli nang dake ning panaun a Devonian deng minunang diling tanaman a maki butul (seed plants), deng Pteridosperms (seed ferns) ampong Cordaites (a pareu nang ala o extinct), minyupling lang myayaliwa kanitang Carboniferous, at lalu la pang migbayu anyang panaun a Permian ampong Trisassic. Kareng tanaman a reti, taglus taglus neng melati ing gametophyte (completely reduced), at migumpisa ya ing sporophyte king kilub ning makakulung a lulanan a awsan dang butul, a daragul kabang atyu king pengaring tanaman, kaybat ning fertilization kapamilatan da ring butil ning pollen. Kabang darakal la kapamilatan da reng spore deng aliwang tanaman a vascular, at uli na niti, mangaylangan lang danum bang dagul, agyu rang mye at dákal deng mapilan a tanaman a maki butul agyang malanging malangi ing paligid.

Gymnosperm (“lubas a butul” o “naked seed”)ing aus kareng minunang tanaman a maki butul uling e ya makabalut takap a proteksyon ing embryo ning butul neng pollination, at deretsu yang durugpa ing pollen ketang embryo. Maleparan la pa murin deng lugal nung nu la mabibye reng apat a mitatagan a grupu da reti, lalu na reng conifer, a ilang manimuna o dominanting dutung kareng mapilan a biome. Deta namang angiosperm, a tanaman a manyampaga, ila pin deng tawling maragul a grupu da reng tanaman a linto. Menibat la kareng gymnosperm kanitang panaun a Jurassic, at malagwa lang minyupling myayaliwang uri kanitang Cretaceous. Ing aliwa da reti, makatakap ya ing seed embryo, anya kaylangan yang magpalwal tubo ing pollen ba neng luban ing takap ning butul (protective seed coat). Ila ring tanaman a keraklan mayayakit kareng alus eganaganang biome ngeni.

Deng Algae ampong Fungi[mag-edit | edit source]

Bibilugan dong mapilan a myayaliwang grupu reng algae, a e kayanib king Kingdom Plantae nun e king Kingdom Protista. Gagawa lang enerhiya kapamilatan ning photosynthesis. Ing peka kapansin-pansin kareti ila reng seaweed. Multicellular lang algae deti a pekamalapit kareng tanaman king gabun (terrestrial plants), oneng e la tanaman; kayabe la reti kareng [[green alga|green]], red, ampong brown algae. Kayabe la murin kareti reng myayaliwang mabibyeng maki tunggal celula ampo retang kabud namu mitipun a celula, a yalang myayaliwang tissue. Makakimut la reng dakal kareti, at atin pa ping e na makarapat king photosynthesis. Anyang minuna lang metuklas deti, tuturing dong pareung tanaman ampong animal deti. Ngeni, e no kayabe king sanuman kareng adwa, nun e kayabe la kareng protist.

Menibat la kareng green algae deng embryophyte; Viridiplantae ing aus da kareng adwang deti. Karaniwan, ini na mung monophyletic a grupu ing tuturing dang kayanib king kingdom a Plantae, anti ing mayayakit king babo. Liban kareng mapilan a green algae, atin lang cell wall a maki cellulose deti, ampong chloroplast a maki adwang klasing chlrophyll, a ampong b, at sasalikut da ing pamangan bilang starch. Daralan la king closed mitosis a alang centriole, at keraklan, ating lang mitochondria a maki patag (flat) a cristae.

Ating adwang membrane a makapadurut kareng chloroplast da reng aluntyan a tanaman (green plants), at malyaring iti tanda yang menibat la retang chloroplast kareng endosymbiotic a cyanobacteria. Makanyan la murin deng red algae; paniwalan da reng keraklan a metung la mu penibatan deting adwa. Samantala, deta namang aliwang algae, atin lang chloroplast a maki atlu o apat a membrane. Keraklan kareti, e ro malapit a kamaganak deng aluntyan a tanaman, at akukwa do reng karelang chloroplast kareng ayayakmul dang green o red algae.

E anti kareng embryophyte ampong algae, e la photosynthetic deng fungus, nun e saprophyte la. Ing buri nang sabyan niti, kukwanan da ing karelang pamangan kapamilata’ning pamaglaso (breaking down) kareng materyal a makapadurut karela at sisipsipan da iti kaybat. Deng keraklan kareng fungi bibilugan da lang microscopic a tubong awsan dang hyphae, a malyaring mapipitna o e mapipitna kareng celula, pero atin lang eukaryotic a nucleus. Deng fruiting body (ing pekakilalang alimbawa da reti yapin ing payung-payungan) ila mu reng reproductive structure o dakeng magagamit king pamiparakal kareng fungi. E ro kamaganak deti ding sanuman kareng grupung photosynthetic, nun e malapit dong kamaganak deng animal. Atin lang sarili rang kingdom.

Ulaga[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing photosynthesis ampong carbon fixation a daraptan da reng tanaman king gabun ampong algae ila reng peka panibatan nign enerhiya ampong materyal a organic kareng halus eganaganang tutuknangan da reng mabibye. Ayalilan deng mayap deng prosesung deti ing sangkap (composition) ning atmosfera ning Yatu, anya pin asnang karagul a dake na niti ing gawa king oxygen. Aerobic la reng animal at keraklan kareng organismu - mamasa la king oxygen. Detang ali, mayayakit la mu kareng mapilang anaerobic a lugal.

Much of human nutrition depends on cereals. Other plants that are eaten include fruits, vegetables, herbs, and spices. Some vascular plants, referred to as trees and shrubs, produce woody stems and are an important source of building material. A number of plants are used decoratively, including a variety of flowers. Magdependi la kareng binutil (cereal) deng tau para king keraklan king kakanan da. Bukud kareti, kayabe la kareng aliwang tanaman a kakanan deng prutas, gule, dikut, at spice. Maulaga lang pikukwanan pangawang bale deng mapilan a vascular a tanaman a awsan dang dutung ampong shrub, a maki tangkeng mala-dutung.

Pamandagul[mag-edit | edit source]

Atin lang paralan a pamingwa o pangdepensa king sarili ra deng aliwang tanaman, antimo reng suksuk king blackberry

Mangakuyad la mu bye reng simpling tanaman kalupa da reng algae bilang indibidwal, dapot pana-panaun la reti dung ibasi king pangkabilugan a populasyun. Den namang aliwang tanaman, gugrupu da la basi king karelang pamandagul dikil king panaun:

  • Annual: mabibye la at darakal kilub ning metung a panaun a

pamananam.

  • Biennial: mabibye la kilub ding adwang panaun ning

pamananam; keraklan, magparaka’la keng kadwang banwa.

  • Perennial: mabibye la kilub da reng dakal a panaun;

taglus-taglus lang magparakal o manyupling kabud atsu no king edad.

Kareng vascular a tanaman, kayabe la kareng perennial deng evergreen, a maki bulung king kabilugan ning banwa, ampo reng tanaman a deciduous, a mababalag bulung king metung a dake ning banwa. Kareng klimang temperate ampong boreal, keraklan, neng karimlan (winter, o panaun ning dimla) la mababalag bulung deti; den namang tanaman kareng mangapali o tropical a lugal, neng kaleldo (dry season) malilyari iti.

Maragul ing pamiyaliwa king bilis ning pamandagul da reng tanaman. Ating moss a daragul a kulang king 1 μm/h, kabang keraklan kareng dutung daragul lang 25- 250 μm/h. Ating tanaman a kukulate, antimo ing kudzu, a e na kaylangan gawang makapal a supporting tissue o laman a pangsuporta – iti daragul yang anggang 12500 μm/h.

Deng fossil[mag-edit | edit source]

Kayabe la kareng fossil da reng tanaman deng yamut, dutung, bulung, butul, bunga, pollen, spores, phytolith, ampong amber (ing fossil a agta a manibat kareng mapilan a tanaman). Mayayakit la reng fossil a tanamang gabun kareng banlik (sediment) a menibatan king gabun, dayatan (lacustrine), ilug ampong bebe dagat. Gagamitan do reng pollen, spores ampng algae (dinoflagellates ampong acritarchs) ba lang mabalu edad deng tumpak- tumpak a batung banlik (sedimentary rock sequences). E ro kasindakal deng fossil a animal deng fossil a tanaman, dapot sagana la reng fossil a tanaman kareng dakal a lokal a lugal king mabilug a yatu.

Mayayakit angga reng tunggal-tunggal a cell kareng fossil da reng minunang tanaman. Milyari kanitang panaun a Devonian ing pamanalto ning paniwalan dang mumunang makabayung tanaman a dutung, ing Archaeopteris. Miyayabe kaniting dutung a lupang paku ing metung a pun a madutung ampo reng bulung ning paku, oneng ala yang butul.

Fossil a bulung ning Ginkgo king England anyang panaun a Jurassic

Metung lang manimunang pikukwanan fossil da reng tanaman manibat kanitang en:Palaeozoic deng en:Coal Measures; mayayakit la reng dakal a grupu da reng tanaman a mabibye anyang panaun a ita. Masanting diling mangolekta kareng buntun a piyugsyanan (spoil heaps) kareng minang karbon. Ita mismung karbon ibat ya ketang pekatanaman, oneng keraklan e mayayakit ing itsura detalye ning itsura da reng fossil a tanaman king karbon. Ketang Fossil Forest king Victoria Park king Glasgow, Scotland, mayayakit la reng impun (trunk) da reng dutung a Lepidodendron ketang orihinal a lugal nung nu la tinubu.

Malyari lang mayakit deng dakal a fossil da reng dakeng mitagan kareng yamut, tangke ampong sangang conifer ampong angiosperm kareng sedimentary rocks o batung ibat king banlik a manibat king panaun a Mesozoic ampong Caenozoic. Marlas lang mayayakit deng Sequoia ampo reng kayang kamaganak, deng en:magnolia, en:oak, ampong palmeras.

Dakal muring batung kalyus o petrified wood kareng mapilang dake ning yatu. Marlas mayayakit iti kareng lugal a malangi o desyertu, nung nu ya malagwang lunto uling king pangatibag (erosion). Keraklan, silicified (miyalilan silicon dioxide itang materyal a organic) ing batung kalyus, at angga ing mangalati nang detalye ning dutung manatili ketang dakal miyalilan nang batu. Malyari lang pututan at pakintaban deng pirasu ning batung kalus a gagamit kasangkapan a para kareng batung pang-alahas. Mayayakit la reng fossil a kakewan (fossil forests) kareng eganaganang kontinenti.

Mayayakit la king kabilugan dang dake deng mapilan a kontinenti ning [[southern hemisphere]] (ing mawli nang kapitna ning yatu) deng fossil da reng seed fern anti ing Glossopteris, at iti migsilbing pamipatune karetang mumuna nang ideyang Alfred Wegener tungkul king teoryang Continental drift.

Pikwanan at karagdagan a pamamasa[mag-edit | edit source]

  • Thomas N Taylor and Edith L Taylor. The Biology and Evolution of Fossil

Plants. Prentice Hall, 1993.

Lon la murin deti[mag-edit | edit source]

Suglung a palwal[mag-edit | edit source]

Template:Dichotomouskey

Molecular Phylogeny of Extant Gymnosperms and Seed Plant Evolution: Analysis of Nuclear 18s rRNA Sequences (pdf file)] Molec. Biol. Evol. 14 (1): 56-68. 1997.

led by Professor Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz,]

Botanical and vegetation databases[mag-edit | edit source]

America and others)]