Acanthaceae

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Acanthaceae
Deng sampaga ning Odontonema cuspidatum
Deng sampaga ning Odontonema cuspidatum
Scientific classification
Kaarian: Plantae
(unranked) Eudicots
(unranked) Asterids
Orden: Lamiales
Familia: Acanthaceae
Juss.
Type genus
Acanthus
L.
Genera

See text.

Ing familiang Acanthaceae metung yang taxon da reng tanaman a maniampaga a maki alus 250 genera ampong manga 2500 species.

Keraklan kareti, dikut la kareng mangapaling lugal (tropical herbs), palungpung (shrubs), o tanaman a kukulate (vines); epiphytes la reng aliwa. Ditak la mu deng species a mayayakit kareng mangarimlang (temperate) a lugal. Apat la reng sentrung panibatan da reti: Indonesia ampong Malaysia, Africa, Brasil ampong Kalibudtang America (Central America). Ating miembru ning familiang iti king alus balang uri ning kapaligiran, kayabe la reng kakeuan, gubat o pulu, makapal man o ali, kareng labuad da reng puliung dutung ampong tanaman (scrubland), kareng mabasang marangle ampong kapatagan o lambak (valleys), king bebe dayatmalat, king mismung dayatmalat, kareng pinak (swamps), ampo kareng kakeuan a bakauan (mangrove).

Deng tanaman king familiang iti maki bulung lang simpli, misusumangid (opposite), decussate, at maki gilid a entire (o kaya sometimes toothed, lobed, or spiny). Maliari lang mika cystolith deng bulung, o maliaring atin lang lulual a calcium carbonate, a lalto antimong gulis king babo ning bulung. Den namang sampaga, maliari lang ganap (perfect), zygomorphic o alus actinomorphic, at makasamasan lang antimong spike, raceme, o cyme. Keraklan, ating makuleng bract king lalam ning sampaga, at kareng mapilang species, maragul ya ampong kapansin-pansin ing bract. Maki apat ya anggang limang lobe ing calyx; ing corolla mala-tubo (tubular) ya, at 2-lipped or 5-lobed; deng stamen, adua la o apat, at paris-paris la pangasamasan at makasulut king corolla. Ing ovary superior ya, 2-carpellate, at maki axile placentation. Ing bunga, capsule yang maki aduang espasiu (two-celled), at balamu mamakbung ya potang mibubusni. Kareng keraklan kareng species, makatuglung la reng bini o butul king malating tangkeng maki kalait (metung a miyalilan bagiang funiculus a ausan dang jaculator) a magpalual karela king lulanan o capsule.

Ing Acanthus mollis or Bear's breeches, metung yang uri o species a pikabaluan kareng mananaman kareng mangarimlang lugal. Metung yang maladikut (herbaceous) a tanaman a perennial a maki mangaragul a bulung ampong flower spike a maki tas a miraras aduang metru. Kayabe no man kareng genus kareng mangapaling lugal a kilala da reng mananaman deng Thunbergia ampong Justicia.

Ing Avicennia, metung yang genus da reng dutung a bakauan, a keraklan bibili da king Verbenaceae o king sarili nang familia, ing Avicenniaceae. Yabe ne ning Angiosperm Phylogeny Group king Acanthaceae uling kareng pamagaral a molecular phylogenetic a magpatuneng maki kaugnayan ya king familiang iti.

Deng mepiling genus

Ating 246 a matatanggap a genus agpang king Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

Larawan

Dalerayan

  1. Wortley, A.H., Harris, D.J. & Scotland, R.W. (2007). "On the Taxonomy and Phylogenetic Position of Thomandersia.". Systematic Botany 32 (2): 415–444. doi:10.1600/036364407781179716. 
  • Schwarzbach, Andrea E. and McDade, Lucinda A. (2002). "Phylogenetic relationships of the mangrove family Avicenniaceae based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences". Systematic Botany 27: 84–98. 

Suglung palual

  • Acanthaceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval.
  • Tree of Life Acanthaceae