Ludwig van Beethoven

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Ing litratu neng Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820
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I Ludwig van Beethoven (English pronunciation: /ˈlʊdvɪɡ væn ˈbeɪtoʊvɨn/ (US), /ˈlʊdvɪɡ væn ˈbeɪthoʊvɨn/ (UK); German: [ˈluːt.vɪç fan ˈbeːt.hoːfən] ( makiramdam); mebiniag 17 Disiembri 1770[1] – 26 Marsu 1827) metung yang German talakudta ampong pianista. Metung yang maulagang tau keng panaun ning pamaglipat pialtan ding Classical ampong Romantic panaun inyang Western classical music, ampong mabibilang ya angga ngeni bilang bantug ampng mapanasag a talakudta king eganaganang panaun.

Ludwig van Beethoven: busisi ning 1804 a litratu neng W.J. Mähler
Beethoven inyang 1815
patron nang Beethoven, Archduke Rudolph


Dalerayan[mag-edit | edit source]

  1. Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often, in the past, given as 16 December, however this is not known with certainty; his family celebrated his birthday on that date, but there is no documentary evidence that his birth was actually on 16 December.

Pikuanan[mag-edit | edit source]

Dakal pang pamamasa[mag-edit | edit source]

  • Albrecht, Theodore, and Elaine Schwensen, "More Than Just Peanuts: Evidence for December 16 as Beethoven's birthday." The Beethoven Newsletter 3 (1988): 49, 60–63.
  • Bohle, Bruce, and Robert Sabin. The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians. London: J.M.Dent & Sons LTD, 1975. ISBN 0-460-04235-1.
  • Davies, Peter J. The Character of a Genius: Beethoven in Perspective. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. ISBN 0-313-31913-8.
  • Davies, Peter J. Beethoven in Person: His Deafness, Illnesses, and Death. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001. ISBN 0-313-31587-6.
  • DeNora, Tia. "Beethoven and the Construction of Genius: Musical Politics in Vienna, 1792–1803." Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1995. ISBN 0-520-21158-8.
  • Geck, Martin. Beethoven. Translated by Anthea Bell. London: Haus, 2003. ISBN 1-904341-03-9 (h), ISBN 1-904341-00-4 (p).
  • Hatten, Robert S (1994). Musical Meaning in Beethoven. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-32742-3. 
  • Kropfinger, Klaus. Beethoven. Verlage Bärenreiter/Metzler, 2001. ISBN 3-7618-1621-9.
  • Martin, Russell. Beethoven's Hair. New York: Broadway Books, 2000. ISBN 978-0-7679-0350-9
  • Meredith, William. "The History of Beethoven's Skull Fragments." The Beethoven Journal 20 (2005): 3-46.
  • Morris, Edmund. Beethoven: The Universal Composer. New York: Atlas Books / HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-075974-7.
  • Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven. (Expanded ed.) New York: W. W. Norton, 1998. ISBN 0-393-04020-8 (hc); ISBN 0-393-31712-9 (pb).
  • Solomon, Maynard. Late Beethoven: Music, Thought, Imagination. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. ISBN 0-520-23746-3.
  • Thayer, A. W., rev and ed. Elliot Forbes. Thayer's Life of Beethoven. (2 vols.) Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09103-X

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