Pamamau

Ibat king Wikipedia
Lundag ka king: pamaglibut, paintunan

Ing Pamamau o olfaction ing pamanamdam ning bau (sense). Kapamilata'na niti, ababau ta la reng chemical a atyu king angin (o, kareng animal a mangisnawa king danum, king danum). Kareng vertebrate, panamdaman la reng bau kapamilata'ning olfactory epithelium a atyu king arung at panigobran (processed) no ning olfactory system.

Nung makananu tamung makabau[mag-edit | edit source]

Atuklasan da ri Linda B. Buck ampo i Richard Axel a atin lang manga metung a libung (100) gene para kareng odor receptor deng mammal. Metung mung dake kareng gene a reti ing mag-code para kareng odor receptor. Atin lang atlung dalan apat a pulu't pitung (347) odor receptor gene a gagana deng tau; detang aliwa, atin lang "nonsens" mutation. Mekwa ya ing bilang a iti kapamilata'ning pamanigaral king genome ketang en:Human Genome Project; malyari yang manaliwa ing bilang dependi king lahi ning tau, at aliwa ya king balang tau. Alimbawa, e eganaganang tau makabau king amyl acetate, (a babaung sagin).

Metung ya mung gaganang odor receptor ing magsilbi king balang odor receptor. Agpang king shape theory, ababalu (detects) ne ning receptor ing metung a kauryan (feature) ning molecule ning bau. Deng celula nerviosa a tatanggap king bau (odor receptor nerve cells) gagana lang antimong susi ampong tarangka (key and lock system). Nung mipagyu ya ing odor molecule king tarangka, “mamaril” ya o magparlang “pasabi” ing celula nerviosa. Ating aliwang teorya, ing vibration theory a pepamunikala nang Turin (1996, 2000). Agpang kaniti, ababalu do reng odor receptor deng frequency da reng kalugkug (vibrations) da reng molecule ning bau king lapad a sasakupan ning infrared kapamilata’ning [[:en:quantum tunneling|electron tunnelling]]. Abalu rang maki kakulangan la reng manimunang ula (predictions) ning teoryang iti (Keller and Vosshall, 2004), dapot e la mamayun kaniti deng aliwang pamanigaral.

Mitipun-tipun la king olfactory bulb deng fibra nerviosa o axon ibat kareng libu-libung celula a magsilbi (expressing) king pare-pareung odor receptor. Paparla da reng mitral cell king olfactory bulb ing impormasyon o pasabi tungkul kareng myayaliwang kauryan (features) kareng aliwang dake ing sistema ning pamamau king utak, at piaben-abayan no reti ba yang milarawan itang bau. Uling atin lang dakal a kauryan deng keraklan kareng molecule ning bau, nung piaben-abayn la reti, malapad ing saklo da reng baung agyu nang abalu niti.


Malagwang misimpan o misalikut king long term memory ing impormasyon tungkul king bau, at masikan ing kaugnaya’na niti king emotional memory. Mapalyaring ing sangkan na niti itang masikan nang pamilupa ning sistema ning pamamau ketang [[:en:limbic system|limbic system]] ampo king hippocampus, detang dake ning utak a malwat da nang balung maki kaugnayan king pamanandanan (memory) king kapanandaman (emotion) ampo king lugal o karinan (place).

Ba rang abalung maki pheromone, dakal karing vertebrate ing maki auxiliary olfactory sense organ (organ a sasaup king pamamau) a awsan dang vomeronasal organ, a atyu king pilatan ning arung ampo ning asbuk. Gagamitan de reng ubingan ba rong abau deng karelang darakpan (prey); ilwal de ing karelang dila at itagkil de ketang organ a iti. Deng aliwa naman, ikorti de ing lupa da ketang awsan dang flehmen bang papuntang ing angin king organ a iti. Kareng tau, subliminal o makasalikut (e ra deretsang panamdaman) ing pamanuklas (detecting) kareng pheromone. Malyaring mibabaligtad a pamibageng sexual at immunological (opposite immunological sexual compatibility) ing papalwal dang mensahing subliminal deti kapamilata’ning bau. Malyaring maki bentahi ya king evolution ing pamanintun kapareha o ayasawang maki aliwang kauryan karas king immunology uling mas agyu rang kumabye deng ának a mibait kareng pengaring e pareu immunology. Atin ping sinabing kareng tau, ini ing paralan a gagamitan da reng bábai (king e ra sasaryan) ba rang pilinan nung ninu ing karelang aburi.


Asneng kaulaga king panlasa ing bau. Apat la mu reng bageng agyu nang alasa ning dila ning tau (agpang kareng aliwang pamagaral, lima la kanu, anam o pitu, oneng ditak la pa murin), kabang ing arung, pilan lang libu reng agyu na. Ini ing sangkan nung bakit bagya ka mu makalasa nung makabara ka arung.

Ing pamamau ampo reng animal[mag-edit | edit source]

Myayaliwa ing ulaga at sikan ning pamamau kareng myayaliwang mabibye. Alimbawa, masikan ing pamamau da reng en:mammal, kabang keraklan e la anti kanyan deng ayup. Mibubukud la kareng ayup deng en:tubenose, uling maulaga karela iti. Kareng mammal, maulaga ing pamamau kareng en:carnivore ampong en:ungulate, uling kaylangan dong akilala deng metung at metung, ampo alimbawa kareng moles (pasimundut), uling ing pamamau ing gagamitan da bang manintun pamangan. E makaing masikan kareng catarrhine en:primate (Catarrhini), at ala yang bitasa kareng en:cetacean, dapot dening tawli atin lang masikan a panlasa. Anosmia ing aus da kaniting kakulangan king pamamau. Kareng dakal a animal, makatutuk ya kareng en:pheromone ing pamamau; alimbawa, agyu neng abau lalaking en:silkworm ing metung a molecule ning bombykol.

Ing pamamau kareng animal[mag-edit | edit source]

Deng antenna ing manimuna rang gagamitan king pamamau deng insektu. Magpalwal lang sinyal a electrical deng a makaparikil king bau (odor- specific electrical signals) a awsan dang spikes nung atin lang atuklas a bau. Panigobran (process) do reng sinyal a reti manibat kareng sensory neuron king antenna lobe, at kaybat na niti, deng [[:en:mushroom body|mushroom bodies]] ampo ing lateral horn ning utak. Atyu la king sensilla ning antenna deng sensory neuron, at magwakas la reng fibra nerviosa (axon) kareng antennal lobe. Adwa lang uri deng neuron kareng antennal lobe a reti: deng projection neuron (spiking) ampo reng local neuron (graded junction). Paparla do reng projection neuron deng sepu da reng karelang fibra nerviosa (axon terminal) king mushroom body ampong lateral horm. Malyaring abalu kareng recording ibat kareng projection neuron nung nanu ya ing pepabau da king animal. E pa makaing malino ing malilyari king processing o pamanigobra kaybat na niti, dapot atyu no retang mumunang resulta king karelang pamanigaral.

Deng píkwanan[mag-edit | edit source]

  • Buck, Linda and Richard Axel. (1991). A Novel Multigene Family May Encode

Odorant Receptors: A Molecular Basis for Odor Recognition. Cell 65:175-183.

  • Keller, A and Vosshall, LB. (2004). A psychophysical test of the vibration

theory of olfaction. Nature Neuroscience 7:337-338. See also the editorial on p. 315.

  • Turin, Luca. (1996). A spectroscopic mechanism for primary olfactory reception.

Chemical Senses, 21, 773-791.

  • Turin, Luca. (2002). A method for the calculation of odor character from

molecular structure. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 216, 367-385.

  • Stopfer, M, Jayaraman, V, Laurent, G (2003) Intensity versus Identity Coding in

an Olfactory System, Neuron 39, 991-1004.

  • Stopfer, M. and Laurent, G. (1999). Short-term memory in olfactory network

dynamics, Nature 402, 664-668.

  • Chandler Burr. (2003). The Emperor of Scent : A Story of Perfume, Obsession,

and the Last Mystery of the Senses. ISBN 0-375-50797-3

Suglung a palwal[mag-edit | edit source]

Smells and Odours - How Smell Works]

importance of smell, and pheromones, to Humans and other Animals]

modern perspective] (PDF)

Template:Sensory system Template:Olfactory system