Paraluman

Ibat king Wikipedia
Lundag ka king: pamaglibut, paintunan
Metung a simpling malanging paraluman a batubalani, a pambulsa

Ing paraluman (compass o mariner's compass king Ingles) metung yang kasangkapan king pamaglayag (navigational instrument) bang abalu ing nangan o direksiun king Yatu. Atin yang pánurung (pointer) magnetized o mebatubalani a timawang tumulid king magnetic field ning Yatu, at maragul yang saup king pamaglayag. Keraklan, makamarka la king lupa ning paraluman deng mamuntukan a nangan (cardinal directions o cardinal points) ning pangulu, mauli, aslagan ampong albugan. Maragul ing paniulung a miliari king kalakal king kadayatmalatan uli ning paraluman, uling meging mas ligtas ampong mas malagua ing pamaglakbe. Maliari yang gamitan ing paraluman ba yang carculan ing heading o direksiun/nangan a pupuntalan. Nung gamitan yang kayabe ya ing metung a sextant, maliari neng ibie ing latitude, at nung maki marine chronometer, ing longitude. Uli na niti, minasensu ing pamaglayag, dapot ngening bayu-bayu pamu, miyalilan ne kareng makabayung kasangkapan, anti ing gyrocompass ampo ing Global Positioning System (GPS).

Lon la murin deti

Notes

Dalerayan

  • Admiralty, Great Britain (1915) Admiralty manual of navigation, 1914, Chapter XXV: "The Magnetic Compass (continued): the analysis and correction of the deviation", London : HMSO, 525 p.
  • Aczel, Amir D. (2001) The Riddle of the Compass: The Invention that Changed the World, 1st Ed., New York : Harcourt, ISBN 0-15-600753-3
  • Carlson, John B. (1975) "Lodestone Compass: Chinese or Olmec Primacy?: Multidisciplinary analysis of an Olmec hematite artifact from San Lorenzo, Veracruz, Mexico”, Science, 189 (4205 : 5 September), p. 753-760, DOI 10.1126/science.189.4205.753
  • Gies, Frances and Gies, Joseph (1994) Cathedral, Forge, and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Age, New York : HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-016590-1
  • Gurney, Alan (2004) Compass: A Story of Exploration and Innovation, London : Norton, ISBN 0-393-32713-2
  • King, David A. (1983), "The Astronomy of the Mamluks", Isis 74 (4): 531-555
  • Kreutz, Barbara M. (1973) "Mediterranean Contributions to the Medieval Mariner's Compass", Technology and Culture, 14 (3: July), p. 367–383
  • Lane, Frederic C. (1963) "The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass", The American Historical Review, 68 (3: April), p. 605–617
  • Li Shu-hua (1954) "Origine de la Boussole 11. Aimant et Boussole", Isis, 45 (2: July), p. 175–196
  • Ludwig, Karl-Heinz and Schmidtchen, Volker (1997) Metalle und Macht: 1000 bis 1600, Propyläen Technikgeschichte, Berlin : Propyläen-Verl., ISBN 3-549-05633-8
  • Ma, Huan (1997) Ying-yai sheng-lan [The overall survey of the ocean's shores (1433)], Feng, Ch'eng-chün (ed.) and Mills, J.V.G. (transl.), Bangkok : White Lotus Press, ISBN 974-8496-78-3
  • Needham, Joseph (1986) Science and civilisation in China, Vol. 4: "Physics and physical technology", Pt. 1: "Physics", Taipei: Caves Books, originally publ. by Cambridge University Press (1962), ISBN 0-521-05802-3
  • Needham, Joseph and Ronan, Colin A. (1986) The shorter Science and civilisation in China : an abridgement of Joseph Needham's original text, Vol. 3, Chapter 1: "Magnetism and Electricity", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-25272-5
  • Taylor, E.G.R. (1951) "The South-Pointing Needle", Imago Mundi, 8, p. 1–7
  • Temple, Robert. (1986). The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention. With a forward by Joseph Needham. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-62028-2.
  • Williams, J.E.D. (1992) From Sails to Satellites: the origin and development of navigational science, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-856387-6
  • Zhou, Daguan (2007) The customs of Cambodia, translated into English from the French version by Paul Pelliot of Zhou's Chinese original by J. Gilman d'Arcy Paul, Phnom Penh : Indochina Books, prev publ. by Bangkok : Siam Society (1993), ISBN 974-8298-25-6

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