Photosynthesis

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Ing bulung. Ing pekamaulagang lugal nung nu malilyari ing photosynthesis kareng tanaman.

Ing photosynthesis metung yang maulagang prosesung biochemical nung nu ra gagamitan deng tanamans, en:algae, at mapilang bacteria ing gagamit king enerhiya ning aslag ning aldo bang gawang pamangan. Nung pakalon mu, magdependi la king enerhiyang ibat king photosynthesis deng alus eganaganang mabibye para king karelang pamangan, anya kaylangan ya bang mika bye king Yatu. Ini murin ing panibatan ning oxygen a maragul a dake ning atmosphere ning Yatu. Phototroph ing aus da kareng organismung gagawang enerhiya kapamilata’ning photosynthesis.


autotroph la reng tanaman. Ing buri nang sabyan niti, agyu rang gawang (synthesize) pamangan diretsu manibat kareng inorganic compound, imbes na kanan do reng aliwang mabibye o gumamait materyal a ibat karela. Ing peka kapansin-pansin, gagamit lang carbon dioxide gas ampong danum bang gawang mayumu ampong [:en:oxygen|oxygen]] gas. Manibat king photosynthesis ing enerhiya para kareng prosesung deti. Alimbawa, ining makatuki ing pangkabilugan a equation para king pamangawang glucose, metung a simple sugar:

6H2O + 6CO2 + light →

C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2

Magagamit ya ing glucose bang gawa o maglalang kareng aliwa pang organic compound, antimo itang materyal a pagbalangkas (building material), ing cellulose, o malyari yang gamitang panangab (fuel). Malilyari ini king respiration, a mararapat kareng animal ampo kareng tanaman. King pangkabilugan, ini ing baligtad ning atyu king babo: mag-react ya ing glucose ampo reng aliwang compound king oxygen ba yang lunto ing carbon dioxide, danum ampong chemical energy. Nanupata, malilyari iti king metung a komplikadung prosesung maki tuki-tuking balitang o dake, at maragul ing pamiyaliwa da reti karetang pekadetalye.

Bulung a mebalag. Dilo la kule detang lugal nung nu ya mesira na ing chlorophyll a sadyang kule berdi o aluntyan

“Darakap” (capture) lang sala deng tanaman kapamilata’ning pigment a en:chlorophyll, a babye king aluntyan dang kule. Makapalub iti kareng organelle (lulanan king kilub da reng [[cell (biology)|cells]]) a awsan dang chloroplast. Agyang maki chloroplast la reng eganaganang dake nang aluntyan (berdi) ning tanaman, kareng bulung ibat ing keraklan king enerhiyang magagawa. Atin yang kapitnang milyung chloroplast ing balang milimetru kwadradu da reng celula kilub ning tissue ning bulung. Mitatakpan yang panteng cuticle a balamu biria {waxy) at e mababasa ing kilwal ning bulung; sasabatan na niti ing sobrang pamaglub ning aslag ampong pangawala ning danum. Ita namang epidermis, a malino at alang kule, paburen nang lulub ing sala bang miras iti kareng celulang palisade mesophyll, nung nu malilyari keraklan ing photosynthesis.

Ing photosynthesis kareng algae ampong bacteria[mag-edit | edit source]

Myayaliwa la dagul deng algae, manibat kareng uring multicellular antimo ing kelp angga kareng organismung tunggal mu celula. Agyang e ro kasing-komplikadu pangabalangkas antimo reng tanaman, king pareung paralan murin malilyari ing photosynthesis. “Sisipsipan” ne ning chlorophyll a atsu king kilub da reng chlorophlasts ing sala, dapot myayaliwa ya kule iti uling kareng myayaliwang accessory pigment o pandagdag a pangule. Makagawa lang oxygen deng eganaganang algae, at autotrophic la reng dakal kareti. Nanupata, ating mapilan a heterotrophic la reng aliwa kareti; magdependi (mamasa) la kareng materyal a gagawan da reng aliwang organismu.

Ala lang chloroplast deng photosynthetic bacteria, at keta mismung kilub ning celula malilyari ing photosynthesis. Deta namang cyanobacteria, atin lang chlorophyll ampong oxygen, kalupa da reng chloroplast – at sasabyan da ping ibat la kareti deng chloroplast. Deta namang aliwang photosynthetic bacteria, myayaliwa lang uri pangule (pigments). Mayayaus lang bacteriochlorophyll deti, at e la gagawang oxygen.

King molecular level[mag-edit | edit source]

Mas dakal ya bibyeng enerhiya ing photosynthesis para kareng aliwang wavelength ning sala. Kareng tanaman, adwa la reng en:photosystem a magagamit, at pareu lang peka-aktibu la reti pilatan ning 700 ampong 680 nanometer. Nanupata, atin muring aliwang wavelength nung nu ya matas ing photosynthesis (awsan dong “peak” o taluktuk king action spectrum ning proseung iti).

Maglakbe ing salâ antimong kaptas o paketi (packets) ning enerhiyang awsan dang photon, tatanggapan de king pormang anti kaniti deng chlorophyll molecule (a makabalangkas bang tanggap salâ) a makakutkut kareng mangabilug a thylakoid (thylakoid disks). Istung tinanggap lang proton deng molecule ning chlorophyll, magpalwal (release) la reting tidwang electron, a midadala king [[:en:electron transport chain|electron transport chain]], a kawangis na nitang atyu king respiration. Magagamit ing karelang enerhiya para king en:photophosphorylation, a gagawang en:adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a yang manimunang “energy currency” o pekakwaltang pang-enerhiya king cell.

King photosystem I, mibabalik la king chlorophyll deng electron. King photosystem II naman, magagamit la ba yang paganan ing reaction

NADP+ + H+ + 2e → NADPH

Ing NADPH ing pekamaulagang reducing agent kareng celula, a magsilbing pikukwanan electron a dakal enerhiya (energetic electrons) para kareng aliwang reaction. Uli na niti, magkulangan yang electron ing chlorophyll, at kaylangan neng katmwan iti manibat kareng aliwang reducing agent. Kareng tanaman ampong algae ing danum yang darapat king papil a iti, a mumuli o magresulta king pangagawa ning oxygen:

2 H2O → O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e

Tandanan tamung king danum mu manibat ing oxygen, at e king carbon dioxide, a gagamitan da reng tanaman. Ing minunang migmunikala kaniti yapin i en:C. B. van Neil kanitang dekada treinta (1930s), a menigaral kareng photosynthetic bacteria. Liban kareng cyanobacteria, gagamit lang reducing agent deti antimo ing sulfide o hydrogen, anya alang oxygen a lalto.

Deta namang aliwa, antimo reng halophile (a kayabe kareng Archeae), gagawa la karetang amanwan dang purple membrane, nung nu la “pupupul” (harvest) salâ deng membrane, at magpalwal lang enerhiya. -- deng purple membrane ing minunang megamit ba yang pakit ing chemiosmotic theory: tutud ing salâ karetang membrane, at mibababa ing pH ning solution nung nu la atyu deng membrane a reti, uling mabobomba lang palwal kareng membrane deng proton!

Dakal la pang myayaliwang prosesu deng paganan ning ATP at NADPH a bunga ning photosynthesis. Kareng tanaman, ing pekamaulaga kareti yapin ing [[:en:Calvin cycle|Calvin cycle]], nung nu ya miyayalis ing carbon dioxide ba yang maging ribulose (at manibat karin aliwa pang mayumu, antimo ing PGAL, a magi namang glucose, at neng kayi, protina. Ing aus da kareti, [[:en:light-independent reaction|light independent reaction]], uling malilyari la agyang maralumdum o alang salâ.

Nanupata, nung dakal ing oxygen king chloroplast kumpara king carbon dioxide king sanu mang sangkan, alimbawa king masukal a “undergrowth” (tutubu king lalam ning kakewan o pulû) o neng makasara la reng stomata, malyaring marapat ing photorespiration. Metung yang counter-productive pathway iti (salungat ya king karapatdapat), at lalabanan na ing pamangawang mayumu.

Pamanuklas[mag-edit | edit source]

Agyang e la pa lubusang malino deng mapilan kareng tukituking dake ning photosynthesis, balu ta ne ing pangkabilugan equation na niti manibat kanitang siglung 1800.

Inumpisan nang Jan van Helmont ing pamanyaliksik king prosesu kanitang libutad ning siglung 1600. Maingat neng sikdan ing mass ning gabun a ginamit ning tanaman, ampo ing mass ning tanaman kabang daragul ya iti. Anyang apansinan nang ditak mu ing pamanaliwa ning mass ning gabun, inula (hypothesized) nang king danum manibat itang karagdagang mass ning tanaman, uling ini mu ing miraragdag ketang tanaman a makapasu. Ustu yang bagya ing ulang ini – ibat murin king danum, at king carbon dioxide, ing maragul a dake ning mass a miragdag. Nanupata, keti megumpisa (signalling point) ing ideyang ibat kareng sangkap (inputs) ibat king photosynthesis ing keraklan king biomass ning tanaman, at e king mismung gabun.

Atuklasan na namang [[:en:Joseph Priestley, a metung a kimiko (chemist) ampong ministru, a nung kewani ne ing angin king garapun a bubug (glass jar) at menyindi yang kandila kilub na niti, agad yang matatda ing kandila, agyang maragul ya pa ing kandila. Abalu na muring “masusugat” (injured) ya murin king angin ing metung a dagis. Kaybat, apakit nang “apakayap” ne ning metung a tanaman ing angin a “asugat” ning tanaman o ning dagis.

Kanitang 1778, inulit nong en:Jan Ingenhousz, a doktor king korti ning Emperadora ning Austria, detang eksperimentu nang Priestley. Atuklasa’nang atin yang kaugnayan ing aldo ampo ing salâ king tanaman anya agyu nang myeng mapilang oras ning metung a dagis.

Ketang 1796, apakit nang Jean Senebier, metung a pastor a Frances, a ing CO2 yapin ing “melarin” o “mesugat” a angin, at lulub ya iti kareng tanaman king photosynthesis. E miglwat, apatunayan nang Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure a e mu ibat king pamanyipsip nang CO2 ing pamandagdag king mass ning tanaman, nun e king danum a lulub. Anya mekumpletu ya ing pangkabilugan a reaction nung nu ya magagawa ing pamangan (antimo ing glucose) kapamilatan ning photosynthesis.

Digdagan da reng makabayung siyentipiku ing pundasyun ning belwan (knowledge) ibat karetang siyentipiku dareng milabasan a siglu, at dakal la atuklas.

Therefore, in light the electron acceptor is reduced and oxygen is evolved. Gewa neng Robin Hill ing mumunang eksperimentung magpatuneng ibat king danum ing oxygen a magbunga king photosynthesis da reng tanaman kanitang 1937, at inulit ne iti kanitang 1939. Pepakit nang magpalwal lang oxygen deng makakawaning chloroplast neng ating e karaniwan a reducing agent antimo reng iron oxalate, ferricyanide o benzoquinone kaybat dang mibilad king salâ. Oyni ing Hill reaction

2 H2O + 2 A > (light, chloroplasts) > 2 AH2 +

O2, nung nu ing A ing electron acceptor o tatanggap kareng electron.

Di Samuel Ruben at Martin Camen naman, ginamit lang radioactive isotope ba rang abalu nung ibat pin king danum ing oxygen a metung kareng bunga ning photosynthesis.

Melvin Calvin and his partner Benson were able to puzzle out each stage in the dark or light-independent phase of photosynthesis, known as the [[Calvin Cycle]]. Alutas do ri Melvin Calvin, ampo ing kayang kayabe king obra (partner) a i Benson, ing tungkul king balang dake ning dark o light independent phase (e mangaylangan salâ) ning photosynthesis, a awsan dang Calvin Cycle.

Atuklasan nang Rudolph A. Marcus, metung a siyentipikung sinambut Nobel Prize, nung nanu ing gamit na at kabaldugan ning electron transport chain.

Deng bageng makayapektu king photosynthesis[mag-edit | edit source]

  • Sikan na at wavelength ning salâ
  • Ing karaklan (concentration) ning carbon dioxide
  • Pali o temperatura
  • Danum
  • Pangabalangkas ning bulung (leaf morphology)
  • Ing karaklan nitrogen a atyu king bulung (leaf nitrogen content)
  • Deng molecular carrier

Deng detalye[mag-edit | edit source]

Deng metabolic pathway a maki kaugnayan king photosynthesis:

Lon la murin deti[mag-edit | edit source]

Suglung a palwal[mag-edit | edit source]

and Photosynthesis - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology]