Timbuktu

Ibat king Wikipedia
Lundag ka king: pamaglibut, paintunan
Timbuktu
Tombouctou
—  City  —
  transcription(s)
 - Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu
Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu
Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu
Mapang magpalto kareng rutang caravan a lilipat king Sahara anyang manga 1400. Makalto ya mu naman ing Imperyong Ghana (anggang ka-13 a dilanwa o siglu) ampo ing Imperyung Mali anyang ka-13 anggang ka-15 a siglu. Pansinan me ing ruta manibat Djenné a dadalan king Timbuktu papunta king Sijilmassa. Ing lugal a ngeni Niger maki kule yang dilo.
Mapang magpalto kareng rutang caravan a lilipat king Sahara anyang manga 1400. Makalto ya mu naman ing Imperyong Ghana (anggang ka-13 a dilanwa o siglu) ampo ing Imperyung Mali anyang ka-13 anggang ka-15 a siglu. Pansinan me ing ruta manibat Djenné a dadalan king Timbuktu papunta king Sijilmassa. Ing lugal a ngeni Niger maki kule yang dilo.
Timbuktu is located in Mali
Timbuktu
Location of Timbuktu within Mali
Coordinates: Template:CountryAbbr2 16°46′33″N, 3°00′34″W
Country Mali
Labwad Tombouctou Region
Cercle Timbuktu Cercle
Settled 12th century
Katas/kabilian 856 ft (261 m)
Populasiun (2009)[1]
 - Kabilugan 54,453
Template:Designation list

Ing Timbuktu (English pronunciation: play /ˌtɪmbʌkˈt/; French: Tombouctou ágkas yang: [tɔ̃bukˈtu]; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), sadya mu namang misusulat a Timbuctoo ampong Timbuktoo, metung yang balen king bansa king Albugang Africa ning Mali a atyu king pangulu ning Ilug Niger king mauling gilid ning Sahara Desert. Ing balen ing buntuk balen o kapitolyu ning Labwad Timbuktu, metung kareng walung labwad a administratibu ning Mali. Maki populasyun yang 54,453 anyang 2009 census.

Migumpisa ya antimong pana-panaun a tutuknangan ing Timbuktu, a meging permanenting balayan anyang mumuna nang dake ning ka-12 a dilanwa. Kaybat dang minaliwa deng ruta ning kalakal (trading routes), misaplala ya ing uli ning negosyu king asin, gintu, garing (ivory) ampong alipan, at megi yang dake ning Imperyu ning Mali anyang mumuna nang dake ning ka-13 a dilanwa. Anyang mumuna nang dake ning ka-15 a dilanwa, telan de reng tribung Tuareg king saguling panaun, bayu ne ikwa ning daragul a Imperyu ning Songhay anyang 1468. Simbut ne ning ukbung Moroccan ing Songhay anyang 1591, at gewa neng balwarti ing Timbuktu, lipat ning Gao. Ginawa lang bayung uring makababo deng sinakup, deng arma, a kaybat ning 1612 meging timawa king Morocco. Nanupata, yari na ing ginintuan a panaun ning lakanbalen, at linub ya king malambat a panaun ning pamagbaba kabilyan. Dakal lang tribu deng menibala kaniti, anggang dinatang la reng Frances anyang 1893, at makanyan ing kabilyan anggang iti megi yang dake ning kasalukuyan a Republica ning Mali anyang 1960. King salukuyan, kalulu ya ing Timbuktu, magi yang desyertu. Panigobran dong samasan kabilyan deng makasalesayan a manuskritung makasinup pa murin king lakanbalen. Samantala, maragul yang dake nign panakitan ning lugal ing turismu.

Anyang Ginintuan a Panaun, mika maulagang kalakal kareng libru uling kareng dakal a manigaral king Islam ampong maleparan a pamiugnayan king kalakal: kayabe kareng kampus ning Sankore Madrasah, metung a universidad a Muslim, mitikdo ya ing Timbuktu antimong sentru ning pamanigaral king Africa. Dakal la reng talasulat king kasalesayan, alimbawa i Shabeni ampo i Leo Africanus, a miglarawan king Timbuktu. Deti mengising lang pamangutang king Europa, nung nu minalis ing paglalawe da king lakanbalen maninat king lugal a misnang mabandi, king lugal a misteryosu. Ini ing paglalaweng mibabo king makabayung panaun, anya king kultura ning Albugan, ing lagyu na mengabaldugan yang lugal a masyadung malaut o aliwang dili.

Anyang 1 Abril 2012, metung a aldo kaybat ning pangakwa king Gao, asakup de king militar ning Mali ing Timbuktu deng rebelding Tuareg ning MNLA ampong Ansar Dine.[2] Five days later, the MNLA declared the region independent of Mali as the nation of Azawad.[3] E ne kikilalanan ning sanumang bangsa o ning komunidad a internasyunal ing bayung deklarang lugal kabilyan a pampulitika.[4]

Lon la murin[mag-edit | edit source]

Notes[mag-edit | edit source]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named population
  2. Rukmini Callimachi (1 April 2012). "Mali coup leader reinstates old constitution". Retrieved on 31 March 2012. 
  3. "Tuareg rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of Mali" (6 April 2012). Retrieved on 6 April 2012. 
  4. Azawad: the latest African Border Dilemma, Walter G. Moseley, Al Jazeera, 18 April 2012

Dalerayan[mag-edit | edit source]

Karagdagang babasan[mag-edit | edit source]

Suglung palwal[mag-edit | edit source]

Commons-logo.svg
Ing Wikimedia Commons atin yang mediang maki kaugnayan kang/king:
Wikisource-logo.svg


Template:Niger River Template:Communes of the Tombouctou Region