Baga

Ibat king Wikipedia
Lundag ka king: pamaglibut, paintunan
Deng baga ing atyu king mingatba ning pusu ampo reng mangaragul a uyat king lukib ning salu (chest cavity). (Pikwanan: Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body, 20th ed. 1918.)
Lulub at lulwal ing angin kareng baga kapamilatan da reng dadalanan a gawa king cartilage – deng bronchi ampong bronchiole. King larawan a ini, leko ra itang makatakap a laman ning baga ba la lunto reng bronchiole. (Pikwanan: Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body, 20th ed. 1918.)

Ing baga ing pekamaulaga nang dake king pangisnawa kareng vertebrate a mangisnawang angin. Ing pekamaulaga nang gamit yapin ing pamagdala king oxygen manibat king kiluwal papunta king pupulayan ning daya, at magluwal carbon dioxide manibat king daralanan ning daya palwal. Agagawa na iti kapamilatan ning metung a mosaic da reng makabukud a cell a bibilug milyun-milyung mangalatiktik at misna kaimpis a suput-suputan a yangin (air sac) nung nu malilyari ing gas exchange. Magagamit la murin kareng bageng e konektadu king pamangisnawa deng baga.

Magumpisa la king pulmo- deng katayang pang-medicinang maki kaugnayan king baga. Ibat ya iti king amanung Latin a pulmonarius ("of the lungs"), a kapareu na penibatan ning amanung Griyegu a pleumon ("baga").

Ing papil ning baga king respiration[mag-edit | edit source]

Keraklan, mangaylangan oxygen ing pamangawang enerhiya kareng mabibye, at carbon dioxide naman ing magbunga kaniti. Uli na niti, mangaylangan yang matalab a paralan ing bye bang magdalang oxygen papunta karing cell at maglwal carbon dioxide manibat karing cell. Kareng mangalating lelangan, anti kareng bacteria, a tunggal cell, malyaring marapat iti kapamilata’na kabud ning simpling diffusion. E malyari iti kareng mangaragul a organismu; malati na mung dake da reng eganaganang cell ing atyu ketang malapit kilwal bang manikwang oxygen king angin kapamilata’ning diffusion. Utang da reng organismu kareng adwang manimunang pamakibageng pang en:evolution (evolutionary adaptation) ing upaya rang mika asnang karakal a cell (great multicellularity): metung a matalab a pamipulayi ning daya (an efficient circulatory system) a makapanatad (at manikwang) gases angga kareng pekamalalam a dake ning katawan, at metung a maragul a respiratory system, nung nu makasentru ing obra ning pamanikwang oxygen king kilwal at idala ya iti king katawan, nung nu ya malagwang malyaring ibudbud kareng eganaganang tissue kapamilata’ning circulatory system.

Kareng animal a maki-galugud at mangisnawang angin (air-breathing vertebrates), atin yang mapilan a tuki-tuking dake ing respiration. Lulub king animal ing angin kapamilatan da reng daralanan angin (airways) — kareng reptile, ayup ampong mammal, deni bibilugan no ning arung, faringe (pharynx), ing larynx, ing traquea, deng bronchi ampong bronchiole, ampo reng pekasepu nang sanga ning pamisanga-sanga ning pamangisnawa (respiratory tree). Anti la mong malabung a salá-salá (rich lattice) da reng alveoli (suput-suputan ning angin) — a babye misnang kalapad a lugal para king pamaglibe rang gases (angin) deng baga da reng animal a reti. Miyayalis (diffused) king pupulayan ning daya (bloodstream) ing oxygen ibat king angin kilub da reng alveoli, lipat da reng misna kaimpis a alveolar membrane; ita namang carbon dioxide, lulwal king daya paunta kareng alveoli kapamilata’ning paralan a anti murin kanita. Ing pangimut da reng kalamnan (muscular action) ing papalyari king pamanyingut ampong pamangisnawang palwal king angin; kareng minunang tetrapod (metung a uri da reng vertebrate a maki apat a bitis o menibat kareng pipumpunan a maki apat a bitis), “bobomban” (driven) ya ing angin palun karen gbaga kapamilatan da reng pharyngeal muscles (kalamnan ning faringe). Karen namang reptile, ayup ampong mammal, mas komplikadu yang musculo skeletal system (kaparalanan a bibilugan da reng kalamnan ampong butul) ing magagamit. Atin lang maragul a kalamnan deng mamamal, ing diaphragm, a papalyari king pamangisnawa kapamilatan’ning pamanalili king karaklan (volume) ampong prisyun (pressure). Ustung dagdaga’ne ing karaklan at bawasan ne ing prisyun, masipsip ing angin palub kareng daralanan angin, at neng bawasa’ne ing karaklan at itas ne ing prisyun, itang kabaligtaran ing malilyari.

Deng obra ning bagáng e makasuglung king pangisnawa[mag-edit | edit source]

Liban king papil da reng baga king pamangisnawa (respiration), antimo ing gas exchange ampo ing pamanibala king keraklan (concentration) da reng hydrogen ion, atin la pang aliwang daraptan deng baga:

  • atin lang epektu king karaklan (concentration) da reng biologically active

substances o sangkap a tatalab kareng bageng mabibye, ampo reng panulung magagamit king medisina king daya da reng uyat a artery.

  • sasalakan do reng mangalating pamagculta ning dayang (blood clot) a bibilug

kilub da reng uyat a systemic vein

  • magsilbi lang antimong malambut a laman a peka-sapin (layer) - at sasabat

kareng makapanasakit(shock-absorbent protection) - king pusu pusu, uling ati lu king mingatba na niti at alus padurutan de.

Deng baga da reng mammal[mag-edit | edit source]

Kasalát lang espongha deng baga da reng mammal. Anti lang mitmung busbus a maki epithelium a maki leparan a panlwal surface area) a malapad a e mu nanu kesa ketang leparan nang panwlal ning mismung baga. Kayabe la king karaniwan a uring anti kaniti deng baga da reng tau. Mabasa yang mabasa ing paligid ning baga, anya malagwa lang tumubu reng bacteria keti. Dakal kareng sakit king pamangisnawa (respiratory illnesses) ing pasari da reng impeksyon king bagáng ibat kareng bacteria ampong virus.

Keraklan, ing diaphragm ing manibala king pamangisnawa. Iti metung yang kalamnan a magparagul king lukib (cavity) nung nukarin ya ing baga kapamilata’ning kayang pamanurung (contracting). Ita mismung pekakahun da reng tagyang (rib cage), agyu na mu namang dagul at murung bagya.

Uli na niti, masisipsip ing angin palub at mitutulak palwal da reng baga kapamilatan da reng traquea ampong broncial tube ampong bronchi; manyanga la reti at magwakas la kareng suput-suputan ning angin o alveoli, a padurutan dang capillary a mitmung daya. Keni, mikakalat ing oxygen ibat king angin papunta king daya, nung nu na dadalan ning hemoglobin iti.

Miraras kareng baga ing dayang milako oxygen ibat king pusu; dadalan iti king pulmonary cavity (lukib da reng baga), at kaybat nang mirinan oxygen, mibabalik king pusu kapamilatan da ring pulmonary vein.

In x-rays, the lungs show up as dark regions.

Lugal o Karinan[mag-edit | edit source]

Atilu king kilub ning thoracic cavity (lukib ning salu) deng baga. Deng tatakap at sasagka (protect) kareng tagyang ila pin deng baga, a patulugan o padurutan ning metung a tela-suput (sac) a maki adwang pabalat (double-walled) a awsan dang pleura. Itang sapin (layer) a makalub, makapekat yang mayap ketang kilwal da reng baga, kabang ita namang sapin a makalwal, makataid ya ketang balat nang pangkilub ning lukib ning salu (chest cavity). Ating lang maimpis a pilatan deng adwang sapin a mitmung pleural fluid. Uli na niti, malyari lang mitagusgus king metung at metung deng adwang sapin, ba lang e gad mikawani. Mas malati ya ing kayling baga kesa ketang wanan, ba yang mika pirinan ing pusu.

Avian lungs[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing baga da reng ayup[mag-edit | edit source]

Komplikadu ya dapot misnang matalab (highly effective) itang sistema ning pamilibeng maki-agus a misasagana (cross-current exchange system) kareng ayup. Atin yang tela-suput a angin (air sac) a manibala king agus ning angin kaniti. Lon ya ing bird respiration para king metung a detalyadung pamaglarawan kaniting sistema.

Maragul ing pamiyaliwa dareng baga ring ayup kareng mammal. Liban kareta mismung baga, atin lang air sac king arap ampong gulut deng ayup (keraklan syam) a manibala king pamanagus ning angin kareng baga, oneng ala lang daretsang papil king pamaglibeng gas (angin). Flow-through (tataglus yang mamagus) ing karelang kaparalanan ning pamangisnawa (respiration system).

Neng sisingut yang angin ing ayup, mamagus ya palun king traquea ing angin, papunta kareng air sac bandang gulut na, kabang mamagus papunta kareng air sac king arap itang angin a atyu na kareng baga. Pota namang mangisnawa yang palwal itang ayup, munta kareng baga itang angin kareng posterior air sac, at itang laun (stale) a angin a atyu na ngeni kareng air sac king arap, lumwal kapamilata’ning trachea at munta king kilwal. Uli na niti, adwang kumpletung pamidurut ning pamangisnawa (cycles of respiration) ing kaylangan ba yang dumalan king kabilugan ning daralanan ning angin ing metung a pangisnawa ning angin.

Ala lang suput-suputan ning angin deng baga da reng ayup, e anti kareng baga da reng mammal, nun e mangalating daralanan a awsan dang parabronchi, a makatuglung kareng mingatbang sepu kareng dorsobranchi ampong ventrobranchi. Mamagus ing angin kareng gilid da reng parabronchi, a mitmung busbus anting panilan (honeycomb), at palub kareng air capillary, nung nu mililibe ing oxygen ampong carbon dioxide kareng makasalapung a blood capillary kapamilata’ning diffusion o pamikalat, matung a prosesu ning crosscurrent air exchange.

The purpose of this complex system of air sacs is to ensure that the airflow through the avian lung is always traveling in the same direction - posterior to anterior. This is in contrast to the mammalian system, in which the direction of airflow in the lung is tidal, reversing between inhalation and exhalation. By utilizing a unidirectional flow of air, avian lungs are able to extract a greater concentration of oxygen from inhaled air. Birds are thus equipped to fly at altitudes at which mammals would succumb to hypoxia. Ing sarya na niting komplikadung sistema da reng air sac yapin ing siguradwan a pane mung king metung a nangan o direksyon ing pamanagus ning angin king baga ning ayup – gulut papunta king arap. Aliwa iti king sistema kareng mammal, nung nukarin king misusumangid a direksyon (tidal) ing agus ning angin, a babaligtad neng sisingut ampong neng mangisnawang palwal.

Deng baga da reng reptile[mag-edit | edit source]

Keraklan, kakatmu lang angin deng baga da reng reptile kapamilata’ning kombinasyun ning pampipalapad at pamanurung da reng tagyang, a papalyari da reng axial muscle ampo ning buccal pumping (pamamomba kapamilata’ning asbuk). Mamasa la rin deng kayanib king pamilya da reng dapu (crocodilians) king hepatic piston method, nung nu ing até abita’ne ning metung a kalamnan (muscle) a maka-angkla king pubic bone (dake ning balakang o pelvis), at iti naman, abita’nong pababa ding lalam da ring baga, at papalapara’no reti.

Ing baga da reng amphibian[mag-edit | edit source]

Simpli la mu balangkas anting lobu deng baga da reng keraklan kareng tugak ampo reng aliwang amphibian; malilyari ing pamilibe da reng gases (angin) ketang bandang kilwal da reti. E matalab (efficient) ing paralan a iti, oneng mababa mu naman ing pamangaylangan dang enerhiya deng amphibian, at keraklan miraragdagan ing karelang oxygen kapamilata’ning diffusion kapamilata’ning mabasang balat (outer skin) ning karelang katawan.

Ing baga da reng arachnid[mag-edit | edit source]

Atin lang dakeng awsan dang "book lung" deng babagwa. Ala lang kaugnayan kareng baga (lungs) da reng vertebrate deti, pero pareu lang para king pamangisnawa.

Ing baga da reng crustacean[mag-edit | edit source]

Branchiostegal lung ing gagamita’ning coconut crab bang mangisnawang angin, at malyari yang malumud king danum.

Ing penibata’na agpang king evolution[mag-edit | edit source]

Malapit ing pamiugnayan da reng baga da reng vertebrate (buri nang sabyan, homologous) kareng gas bladder da reng asan (pero e kareng asang). Isipan dang pareu lang menibat deti king outpocketing (pamanalto ning metung a balamu bulsa) king bandang babo da reng bituka (lon la ring ontogeny ampong phylogeny). Atin yang karagdagang detalye tungkul king penibatan da reng organung deti agpang king evolution ing artikulo tungkul king swim bladder.

Lon la murin deti[mag-edit | edit source]

Suglung a palwal[mag-edit | edit source]

Introductory anatomy, respiratory system]

The Respiratory System]

Template:Cardiovascular system