Respiratory system

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Ing Respiratory System

Ing respiratory system ing biological system ning ning sanumang organismung maki kaugnayan king pamilibe da reng gases. Pati reng tanaman atin lang respiratory system, a sisipsip carbon dioxide at magpalwal oyxgen neng aldo, at paneng kukwang oxygen at magpalwal carbon dioxide.

respiratory system da reng tau ampong animal[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing respiratory system da reng tau ampong animal bibilugan de ring daralanan ning angin (airways), deng baga, ampo reng kalamnan king pamangisnawa (respiratory muscles), a fuck you kayo king pamaglub at pamaglwal ning angin king katawan. Kilub ning alveolar system da reng baga, mararapat ing passive (malilyaring dili na, a e mangaylangan enerhiya) a pamaglibe da reng molecule ning oxygen ampong carbon dioxide pilatan ning paligid a maki gases ampo ing daya. King paralan a iti, papalyarya’ning respiratory system ing pamagkarga nang oxygen ning daya, kayagnan ning pamaglako king carbon dioxide ampong aliwang gases a e na kaylangan, manibat king sirkulasyun o pamipulayi king katawan.

Pamibalangkas[mag-edit | edit source]

Malyari yang pitnan ing respiratory system king conducting zone (dakeng magdalang angin) ampong respiratory zone (dakeng pipangisnawan). Deti ing bibilug king conducting zone:

  • Ing arung
  • Ing nasopharynx
  • Ing gulung-gulungan (larynx, o voicebox)
  • Ing traquea, tubong daralanan angin a makatuglung kareng bronchi
  • Ing wanan a maragul a bronchus ampo ing kayling maragul a bronchus, deng tubong

magdala king angin palub at palwal kareng baga

  • Deng bronchiole, a sanga da reng bronchi a babye angin kareng alveoli (suput-

suputan ning angin)

  • Deng terminal bronchiole

Den namang bibilug king respiratory zone, ilapin deti:

  • Deng respiratory bronchiole
  • Deng alveolar duct
  • Deng alveoli, terminal sacs nung nu malilyari ing pamilibe da reng gases.

Deng makatuki ila pin deng kalamnan (muscle) a magagamit king pamanyingut:

  • Ing diafragma, a mag-mediate king prisyun kilub ning salu (intrathoracic

pressure) bang miyumpisan ing pamanyingut.

  • Deng kalamnan king pilatan da reng tagyang a panlwal (external intercostal

muscle), neng malalam a pamangisnawa (vigorous inspiration)

Lipat ning karaniwan, alang enerhiyang kaylangan king pamangisnawang palwal (expiration), deti reng kalamnan a gagamitan neng pilit tamung mangisnawang palwal:

  • Deng kalamnan king atyan (abdominal muscles)
  • Deng kalamnan king pilatan da reng tagyang a panglub (internal intercostal

muscles)

Aliwa pa: Deng wanan ampong kayling bronchiole, terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, ampong alveoli (suput-suputan ning angin) ing bibilug king wanan ampong kayling baga. Keraklan, atin lang abeng uyat deng daralanan ning angin king baga. Dakal la sanga deng uyat a reti. Mababa ing resistensya king pamipulayi ning daya king baga kumpara king pamipulayi kareng aliwang dake ning katawan, anya mababa ing prisyun kilub da reng uyat king baga.

Papil o gamit[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing pamilibe da reng gases ing pekamaulaga nang papil ning respiratory system. Ing pamangisnawa bibilugan ne ning metung a mekanikal o de numerung durut (cycle) ning pamanyangap (inspiration) ampong pamangisnawang palwal (expiration), nung nu malilyari ing pamilibeng gases king pilatan da reti. Ita namang pamangisnawang palwal (expiration), karaniwan metung yang prosesung passive (malilyaring dili na). Likás lang mayayabit (elastic) deng baga. Potang mumurung la o magbalik ibat king pamanabit neng sasangap angin, mamagus palwal ing angin anggang mipante ing prisyun (pressure) king kilub salu ampo king kilwal (king alapap o atmosfera). Neng pipilitan tamung sasangap (forced inspiration), antimo neng mangisnawang malalam, lalu reng papalwalas deng external intercostal muscle (kalamnan king pilatan da reng tagyang a panlwal) ampo reng accessory muscle (kalamnan a panyaup) ing lukib ning salu (thoracic cavity). Neng pipilitan tamu namang magpalwal angin (alimbawa neng mamatdang kandila), maglalang lang pwersa king atyan (abdominal) ampong salu (thoracic) deng kalamnan a maki kaugnayan king pamangisnawang palwal (expiratory muscle), kayabe no reng kalamnan king atyan (abdominal muscle) ampong internal intercostal muscle (kalamnan king pilatan da reng tagyang a panlub), at iti ing magpalwal king angin kareng baga. Potang sasangap, malilyari ing pamilibe da reng gases kareng en:alveoli o suput-suputan ning angin, a ilang pekamaulagang kasangkapan king pamagobra da reng baga. Maimpis lang tutu deng gilid da reng alveoli (manga 0.2 micrometer), at malyari dong luban gases. Misasapinan lang pulmonary capillary (mangapinung uyat ning baga) deting alveoli o suput-suputan ning angin, a maki maimpis a gilid nung nu malilyari murin ing pamilibe-libeng gases. Tataglus ing oxygen manibat king angin da reng alveoli paunta king daya kareng pulmonary capillary, kabang lilipat ne man king sumangid a direksyun ing carbon dioxide, manibat king daya kilub da reng capillary papunta king angin kareng alveoli. Kaybat na niti, mangisnawa tamung palwal, at milalako king katawan ing carbon dioxide, at mayayari ya ing metung a durut ning prosesu ning pamangisnawa. Karagdagan: Kareng keraklan kareng taung matwa o atyu king edad (adult), 250 ml/cc ning oxygen ing lulub kareng baga balang minutu, kabang 200 ml naman ning carbon dioxide ing lulwal kareti. Ing pamagdalan da king gulung-gulungan o laringe, faringe at asbuk ing sangkan nung bakit makapagsalita tamu (a awsan dang en:phonation. Ala yang patugut mikaka mikrobyus ing daralanan ning angin uling king leparan na niti. Ini ing sangkan nung bakit dakal ya paralan ing respiratory system ba neng ipamingwa (defend) ing sarili na at sabatan la reng makasakit a mikrobyung lulub king katawan. Alus ing eganagana king daya ning katawan ing dadalan kareng baga balang minutu. Kaylangan dang magdagdag at magbawas dakal a chemical messenger king daya deng baga kabang mamagus ya iti padalan king pulmonary capillary bed. Malyari la muring dakap migkultang daya a linto kareng systemic vein deng mapinung capillary.

Deng sakit[mag-edit | edit source]

Malyari lang pitnan king apat a mangaragul a grupu deng sakit ning respiratory system:

  • Sakit a Mákasabát [obstructive](e.g., Emphysema, Bronchitis, Asthma [Usang o

Sigasig])

  • Sakit a Mákaskup [restrictive] (e.g., Fibrosis, Sarcoidosis, Síra kareng

Alveoli, Pleural Effusion)

  • Sakit kareng Uyat [vascular] (e.g., Pámagmanás king Baga [Pulmonary Edema],

Pulmonary Embolism, Pulmonary Hypertension [Alta Prisyun king Baga])

  • Impeksyun, Sakit ibat king Paligid at aliwa pang Sakit (alimbawa, Pulmunya,

Tuberculosis, Asbestosis, Particulate Pollutants)

Ing respiratory system kareng tanaman[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing prosesu ning en:diffusion o pamikalat ing magsilbing angganan king prosesu o kaparalanan ning pamangisnawa da reng tanaman (plant respiration). Angga ing dutung a en:baobab, keraklan mete ya uling angga mu king ubak (balat) ing darasan ning angin. Nanupata, e la darapat obrang mangaylangan dakal a enerhiya antimo ing pamangasu, anya limitadu mu ing karelang pamangisnawa.

Ing respiratory system kareng insektu[mag-edit | edit source]

Ala lang makatipun (concentrated) a organu para king pamangisnawa deng insektu (Perkins, 2003). Ing atyu karela, metung a sistema da reng en:trachea, o mangaimpis a daralanan, a tataglus king karelang katawan. Mas matalab iti (epektibu) kesa king simpling diffusion (pamikalat ning angin), uling mikalat yang masalese king mabilug nang katawan ing angin. Deng spiracle mangalati lang busbus a mayayakit king atyan ampong salu (thorax) ning insektu, dapot ali king buntuk (Perkins, 2003). Deti ing manibala nung makananu karakal ing angin a lulub king insektu. Deti papunta la king trachea, a magsilbing “mangaragul a tubong piyagusan” (large distribution tubes) para king angin (Perkins, 2003). Papunta la reng trachea kareng mas mangalating tubong awsan dang tracheole. E la malyaring midayu kareng tracheole a reti uling keni lulub ing oxygen at lulwal ing carbon dioxide king hemolymph (ing pekadaya da reng insektu). Malilimita ing dagul da reng insektu uli na niti uling ing diffusion mu kabud ing magagamit a paralan. Alang insektung mas makaba pa king maygit bagya king metung a pye ngening panaun tamu (king sistemang metriku, manga kapitnang metru).

Ing tissue engineering[mag-edit | edit source]

King en:tissue engineering, ing pamangisnawa ing pekamaulagang prublema. Kulang king metung a milimetru (o.04 a pulgada o inch) ing darasan ning pamangisnawa uli ning diffusion. Myayaliwa lang sangkap o materyal ding malyaring gamitan ba yang miragdagan ing lalam a iti, a keraklan anti king papil ning hemoglobin (ing magdalang oxygen king daya).

Deng pikwanan[mag-edit | edit source]

  • Perkins, M. 2003. Respiration Power Point Presentation. Biology 182 Course

Handout. Orange Coast College, Costa Mesa, CA.

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