Balugbug

Ibat king Wikipedia
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Ing kayling balugbug ning metung a tau.

Ing balugbug metung yang organung gagamitan ning animal bang makaramdam (detect) sound waves. Malyari yang mangabaldugan ketang mabilug a sistemang gagamitan king pamangalap (collection) kareti at king mumunang dake ning pamag-process ning katni (ing umpisa ning auditory system, o mapalyaring ita mung dakeng mayayakit manibat king kilwal. E para-pareu ing lugal nung nu la makabili deng balugbug da reng animal.

Ing gagamitan da king pamakiramdam deng e mammal[mag-edit | edit source]

Atin lang bwak king karelang butit deng babagwa a gagamitan da bang makaramdam katni (for detecting sound).

Metung la mu butul deng balugbug da reng reptile – itang columella (stages) (lon ya king lalam).

Ing balugbug da reng mammal[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing kilwal balugbug (outer ear) ing dake o parti nang makalwal ning balugbug. Pinna o auricle ing aus da ketang dakeng mayayakit, a yang a yang gagamitan bang mangalap (collect) at mag-focus kareng sound wave. Malyari reng ikimut deng dakal kareng mammal ing pinna ba reng aturu ing karelang pamakiramdam king metung a direksyon anti ing pamangimut da king karelang mata. Agyu rang gawan iti deng keraklan kareng tau. Manibat king pinna, maglakbe la papunta king ear canal, metung a simpling tubong papunta king kalibudtan balugbug, deng sound pressure wave. Papasikan no ning tubong deti deng frequency king pilatan ning 3 kHz ampong 12 kHz.

Ating lang pingul deng balugbug da reng tau. Agyang vestigial la reti, gagamitan do reng dakal a tau anting pitusukan tingga. Keraklan, makakawani ya king gilid ning lupa ing pingul, at anti ya mong makasabit king balugbug, dapot neng kayi, makapekat ya king lupa ing balugbug, a alang pingul, uling king metung a recessive a gene. Atyu king pekakilwal nang gilid ning kilwal balugbug ing helix [1].

Kayabe ya king kapitna ning balugbug (middle ear) ing salamin ning balugbug (eardrum, tympanum o tympanic membrane), deng ossicle (atlung mangalatiktik a butul), adwang muscle tendon (dareng muscle a stapedius ampong tensor tympani), at adwang kaptas a nervios (nerve bundles, itang makabakle nang dake ning nervios ning lupa [facial nerve] ampong metung pang sanga ning nervios ning lupa a yausan dang chorda tympani). King Latin, malleus, incus, at stapes ing lagyu da retang ossicle, dapot awsan da la rin king Ingles a hammer, anvil, at stirrup.

Makabukud (unique) la reng mammal uling atlu la butul king balugbug. Ibat la kareng butul ning panga deng incus ampong stapes; lalung maging malino at pinu ing pamakiramdam kareng katni uling kareti. Deng butul a reti ing magsilbing mangituglung king salamin o timpano ketang oval window a papunta king kakilub-kiluban ning balugbug. Ing timpano ing magsilbing manalili kareng kalugkug king angin ketang tubo ning balugbug (ear canal) ba lang maging kalugkug da reng ossicle. Deta namang ossicle, padalan do reting kalugkug ketang membrane ning oval window papunta king likidu ning kakilub-kiluban ning balugbug. Ing ratio (proporsion o dake) king leparan ning timpano king oval window babye yang pamipasikan o amplification a migit-kumulang 14 dB, at pekamatas ya king frequency a manga 1 kHz. Uli ning piyabeng transfer function ning kilwal balugbug ampo ning kapitnang balugbug, pekamatas ing pamakiramdam kareng frequency king pilatan ning between 1 kHz and 3 kHz. Mumurung la reng muscle a tensor tympani at stapedius ning kapitnang balugbug neng maki masikan a katni, at uli na niti, mababawas ing pamagdala (transmission) king katni king kakilub-kiluban ning balugbug. acoustic reflex ing aus kaniti.

Guwang (alang laman o hollow) ya ing libutad ning kapitnang balugbug. Nung munta ya king matas a lugal o sumungab ya king danum ing metung a animal, mika pamiyaliwa ing prisyun king kapitna ning balugbug ampo king kilwal ning animal. Nung e milako ing prisyung iti, mapalyaring matdas ya o masira ing timpano. Ini ing metung kareng gamit da reng trompa de eustaquio – a menibat kareng asang agpang king ebolusyon – at ilang mangituglung king akmulan. Keraklan, makatakap la reng trompa de eustaquio ba lang e mibarang plema, oneng malyari lang ibusni kapamilata’ning pamagbaba at pamibuklo (protruding) king panga. Ini ing sangkan ot makabawas king prisyun kareng balugbug ing manuyab neng sasake eruplanu.

Kayabe la king kakilub-kiluban ning balugbug deng cochlea, a yang peka organu ning pamakiramdam, ampo ing [[labyrinth (inner ear)|labyrinth]] o vestibular apparatus, ing organu ning pamagbalansi, a bibilugan da reng atlung [[:en:semicircular canal|semicircular canal]] ampo ing vestibule.

Ing cochlea (ibat ya king katayang Latin para king “susû”), metung yang silid a makabalibul (spiral), guwang (hollow), at ugis/alcus yang balisusu (conical). Gawa ya iti king butul, at mitmu yang perilymph, metung a likidung tatanggap kalugkug a ibat king angin, dinalan king oval window, at dinalan king timpano ampo reng ossicle ning kapitna ning balugbug (lon ya king babo). Dadalan ya king libutad na niti ing cochlea duct, nung nu ya atyu ing makabalibul a [[w:organ of Corti|organu nang Corti]], ing receptor organ a yang sangkan obat makaramdam ya ing tau. Mapipitna ya ing lukib ning cochlea, a gawa king butul, kareng atlung silid: ing scala vestibuli, a atyu king babo ning cochlea duct, at kasiping ning oval window; ing scala media, a yang cochlea duct a maki membrano at nukarin ating endolymph at organo nang Corti; ampo ing scala tympani, a atyu king lalam ning scala media at magwakas king round window. Pareu lang maki perilymph deng adwang silid a gawa king butul (detang scala vestibuli ampong scala tympani), at mitutuglung la reti king cochlear apex, metung a lugal a awsan dang helicotrema. Ing vestibular membrane ing mangikawani king scala vestibuli ampong scala media. Samantala, ing basilar membrane naman ing pilatan da reng scala media ampong scala tympani. Ita namang Organu nang Corti, makatumpak ya king basilar membrane, a mitatakpang hair cells, a sensory cell a maki mala-bwak a bageng makatumpak karelang awsan dang stereocilia.

Potang kikimut (oscillates) ya ing stapes king oval window neng ating katni, kikimut (oscillates) ya murin ing perilymph kilub ning scala vestibuli. Kareng mangababang frequency (mas mababa king 20Hz), maglakbe la reng alun ning prisyun (pressure waves) king kekaban ning cochlea – paukyat king scala vestibuli, padurut king helicotrema, at pababa king scala tympani paras king round window. Nung anti ya kaniti kababa deng frequency, e “misasalangyan” (activated) ing organu nang Corti, at mas mababa ya kesa king agyu nang damdaman ning tau. Den namang mas matas a frequency, e la maglakbe king helicotrema, nun e dadalan la king endolymph king cochlea duct papunta king perilymph king scala tympani. Uli na niti, kálugkug ya ing mabilug a basilar membrane. Makabage (tuned) la king partikular a frequency deng lambal (fiber) ning basilar membrane; makuyad la at masyas (at makabage la kareng mangatas a frequency) deng malapit king oval window, at makaba la at malambut (floppy) (makabage kareng mangababang frequency) detang king lele ning sepu (apex) ning cochlea.

Neng kakatni (resonates) ya ing metung a lugal ning basilar membrane, magparla lang nerve impulse king utak deng hair cell king lugal a ita. Karas da king utak deng nerve impulse, damdama’na lang antimong katni ning sanumang pitch ing kabage ning partikular a hair cell a ita. Malyari lang mate deng hair cells uling king masikan a pamangimut ning endolymph uli ning masyadung masikan a inge. Ini ing metung karing panibatan ning bagyang (partial) a pamangaklak, at ya ing sangkan nung bakit kaylangan gumamit earmuff o earplug.

Parehu lang mitmung endolymph deng vestibular apparatus ampong cochlea. Pero imbes na katni ing kayang panamdaman, ing panamdama’na, itang rotation ning buntuk. Nung gawa kang gulis a taglus king libutad ning balang metung kareng atlung semicircular canal, a makasalapung perpendicular king plane nung nukarin ya ing canal, perpendicular la reng atlung gulis. Anti la mong pekakatawan da reng atlung axis of rotation. Malyari yang ipalto antimong atlung agnan-agnan a pamagdurut ing sanumang pamandurut kareng atlung axis.

Deng sakit at medical condition ning balugbug ampo ing auditory system[mag-edit | edit source]

Malyari nong panibatan ning pamangaklak deng prublema king balugbug o auditory processing system king utak.

Lon la murin deti[mag-edit | edit source]

cochlea

Suglung a palwal[mag-edit | edit source]

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