Panas

Ibat king Wikipedia
Lundag ka king: pamaglibut, paintunan
Para keng aliwang gamit, lawen ye ing Panas (pamaglino).
Panas
Formica rufa worker
Formica rufa worker
Scientific classification
Kaarian: Animalia
Division: Rhopalocera
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Pinduan: Insecta
Subclass: Pterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera
Superorder: Endopterygota
Orden: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Vespoidea
Familia: Formicidae
Latreille 1809
Subfamilies

Deng panas ing metung kareng matagumpeng diling grupu da reng insektu. Lalu lang intresanti uling social insect la, at mititikdo lang asnang ka-organisadung colony o tuknangan, a keraklan bibilugan da reng milyun-milyung indibidwal. Neng kayi, miugne-ugne la reng colony a mikakamag-anak, at bumilug lang supercolony, a tutung maleparan sasakupan a gabun.

Tutuknangan dang panas ing halus eganaganang labwad king yatu. Bibilugan da ing labinglimang porsyentu (15%) ning eganaganang biomass da reng animal king metung a kakewan a tropical rainforest. Anyang banwang 2006, miras nong 11,844 deng kikilalanan dang species da reng panas. Karen lang lugal a mangapali keraklan mayayakit deti.


Penibatan[mag-edit | edit source]

Tuturing dong metung a family deng panas, itang Formicidae, a kayabe king order a Hymenoptera. Miyapse o menibat la reti king lahi da reng en: vespoid wasp.

Template:Sectstub

Pamibalangkas ning katawan[mag-edit | edit source]

Makikilala la reng panas a yaliwa kareng aliwang insektu kareting kayuryan a makatuki: antenna, metung a kadwang dake o pakling (segment) misnang kaskup a bibilug tangkeng balamu node; uring worker o talapagobra a alang pakpak; at ing presensya ning metapleural gland. Atilan lang organung panyalat kareng karelang butit, antenna, thorax o salu, at buntuk, a makakilala kareng (vibration) a maglakbe king gabun. Makisabi la murin kapamilatan da reng kemikal. E la dumitak keng apulu anggang adwang pulung klasing paralan ning pamakisabi kapamilatan da reng kemikal.

Atin lang pakpak deng keraklan kareng queen ampong lalaking panas, at mawawala kaybat ning karelang nuptial flight; nanupata, ating malyaring luntong queen a yalang pakpak (ergatoid), ampong lalaking alang pakpak.

Pamanalkus (Development)[mag-edit | edit source]

Holometabolous la reng panas, at dadalan la king ganap o kumpletung metamorphosis. Ing buri nang sabyan, dadalan la king panaun a magi lang larva ampong pupa bayu la miras king idad. Potang larva la, e la makakimut dili ra, uling ala lang bitasang bitis, uli ning ating maningat at papakan karela. Itang pamangan da potang panaun a larva la ing panibatan ning pamiyaliwa da reng queen ampong worker, at saka deng myayaliwang ranggu (caste) da reng worker. Pakanan da la reng larvae kapamilata’ning metung a paralan a awsan dang trophallaxis, nung nu yapsa nang pasibayu ning panas ing pamangan a misimpan ketang kayang buksi (crop) para king mabilug a kolonya. Makanini da muring bibye king metung at metung deng panas a mangaragul na ing pamangan. Uling kaylangang e mamalis ing pali o temperatura ning paligid da reng larva at pupa, marlas dong piyalis-alis deti kareng myayaliwang brood chamber o silid a pipaningatan.

Karas na king edad ning bayung worker, gamitan na ing mumunang mapilan a yaldo king pamaningat ning queen ampo reng ának a panas. Kaybat, malis ya king pamangulkul at aliwa pang obra king sale o pugad. Potang kayi, ita namang pamangalap pamangan ampong pamamingwa (defense) ning sale ing kayang maging obra. Malagwang lang malilyari deng pamanaliwang deti, at ila ing awsan dang temporal caste o ranggung basi king panaun. Agpang king metung a teorya, malilyari iti uling dakal lang mamamate king pamangalap pamangan, anya mitotoka la mu kaniti reng panas ustung matwa na la at malapit na muring mate. Kareng mapilan a uri da reng panas, atin muring “physical caste,” nung nu la myayaliwa dagul deng panas – detang minor, median ampong major. Mumuna lang mangalap pamangan detang tawli. Keraklan, asnong karagul buntuk detang mas mangaragul a panas kumpara king katawan da, anya mas masikan la en:mandible o panga. Neng kayi, “soldier” ing aus da kareng panas a reti uling mas masikan la reng karelang panga king pamakilaban, dapot worker la pa murin deti, at e maragul ing pamiyaliwa ning karelang obra kareng worker a minor o median. Kareng mapilan a species, ala nang median worker, anya tutung maragul pamiyaliwa da reng ninor ampong major.

Halus pare-pareu ing paralan ning pamiparakal da reng keraklan kareng karaniwan a uri da reng panas. Potang umpisa, bábai la ngan deng panas king metung a kolonya, dapot ing queen mu ampo reng babaing paglahi (breeding fenales) ing malyaring mamalipi (mate). Lindas king karaniwan a paniwala, ating saleng panas a maki mapilan a queen. Drone naman ing aus da kareng lalaking panas. Miyayapsa lang maki pakpak deti kalupa da reng babaing paglahi, at ala lang gagawan deti king mabilug dang bye nun e mangan, anggang panaun na bang mamalipi. King panaun a ita, idala ro ngan king kilwal ning kolonya deng eganaganang panas a paglahi liban king queen, at makanyan murin ing malilyari kareng aliwang kolonya. Kaybat, susulagpo la reng eganaganang panas a paglahi. Malilyari ing pamipalipi kabang susulagpo la reng panas, at e maglwat mate no reng lálaki. Kuldas no man detang bábai at maintun lang lugal a bageng gawang kolonya. Karas karin, pututan do reng sarili rang pakpak, mangebun la, at ingatan do reti. Agyang mayna la at mas malati deng mumunang worker kumpara karetang katuki ra, tanbing lang magsilbi king kolonya deti. Paragulan de ing sale, mangalap lang pamangan, at ingatan do reng aliwang ebun. Makanyan yang magumpisa ing metung a kolonya.

Pamakisabi (komunikasyun) ampong pangimut[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing acrobat ant (Crematogaster - Myrmecidinae)
Busbus king punsu - bang e lungub ing danum neng mumuran

Keraklan, misasabi la reng panas kapamilatan da reng chemical a awsan dang pheromone. Uling makatuklu la king gabun keraklan king panaun da reng panas, mas dakal la at komplikadu deng mensahi rang chemical deng panas kesa kareng aliwang kayabe king Hymenoptera. Anya alimbawa nung manakit yang pamangan ing metung a mangalap pamangan kabang pauli ya (a akikilala na kareng tanda [landmark] ampo ing pusisyun ning aldo), maglakwan yang gasgas (trail) king gabun, a e maglwat yang tukyan da reng aliwang panas. Kauli ra, pasikanan de iti, at miragdagan la reng panas a dadalan, anggang magisan ing pamangan. Potang malyari ita, uling e re pasikanan, bagya-bagya yang mabura. Istung mepitpit ya ing metung a panas, magpalwal yang alarm pheromone, a maging sangkan ba lang sumugud deng panas a malapit karin. Nung ditak ne man iti, lumapit la reti. Atin namang panas a magpalwal karetang amanwan dang propaganda pheromone ba lang mabaligo deng karelang kalaban.

E malyaring mabalu ing direksyun o nangan da reng gasgas (trail) da reng panas. Ing buri nang sabyan niti, e na balu ning metung a panas a lalakad king gasgas a e manyanga nung papunta ya o parayu king sale ra iti. Anti la mong letrang “Y” manyanga o manyalapung deng gasgas panas, at 60 degrees ing anggulu da reng gasgas a parayu king sale (secondary trail), at iti ing babye direksyun kareti. (Jackson et al, 2004)

Kalupa da reng aliwang insektu, gagamitan do reng panas deng karelang antena (a makaba at maimpis) king pamamau. Agagalo do reti, at atin lang tela “siku” kaybat ning mumunang at makabang dake o pakli (elongated first segment). Uling paris la reti, ababalu da ing direksyun ampong sikan ning sinyal. Mipaglibe lang pheromone deng panas; makasamut la king pamangan deng sangkap a reti, at ababalu da reng panas ing tungkul king pamikakatawan at pamamangan ning metung at metung. Abalu da murin deng panas nung nau ing grupu da king obra deng asasaganan da (alimbawa, nung mamulut la reti o manyamasan lang sale). Tungkul kareng pheromone, gagawa yang espesyal a pheromone ing queen, a nung ala yu iti, magumpisa lang magparagul bayung queen deng worker.

Lulusub la reng panas at pamingwa (pagtanggul) de ing sarili ra kapamilata’ning pamanginis, at kareng dakal a species, kapamilata’ning pamanasyad (stinging). Sanuman ing gagamitan dang paralan, malyaring atin lang papalub a sangkap o kemikal ketang biktima ra. Metung ya kareng pekamaulaga kareti ing formic acid.

Mabibyasa la reng keraklan da reng animal kapamilatan ning pamakyapus kareng aliwang animal. Nanupata, mapalyaring karen mung panas mayayakit ing “teaching behavior” (pamanuru) bukud kareng tau. Ustung ituki ne ning metung a panas ning species a Temnothorax albipennis itang kayang kayabe ketang pikukwanan pamangan, bagalan na ing kayang pamaglakad nung mitatawli ya itang metung, at pandalasan na nung masyadu neng malapit itang metung (Franks and Richardson, 2006).

Ing pamisaup-saup da at pamikumpitensya deng panas[mag-edit | edit source]

Ating species a panas a kilala king karelang pamanlusub at pamanyakup kareng kolonya da reng aliwang panas. Atin namang aliwang e makanyan kahilig king pamanyakup, dapot agresibu la murin; lulusuban do reng kolonya bang manakong ebun o larva, a kakanan da o paragulan da bang maging worker (talapagobra). Malagad, ating kolonyang panas nung nu adwa lang species deng magobra king metung mung kolonya.

Uri[mag-edit | edit source]

Commons-logo.svg
Ing Wikimedia Commons atin yang mediang maki kaugnayan kang/king:

Tutu lang dakal a myayaliwang uri deng panas, at pati na deng karelang pangimut o “ugali” (behavior). Manibat adwa (2) anggang adwang pulu’t lima (25) lang milimetru (mmm) ing karelang dagul (0.08 anggang metung [1] a pulgada). Myayaliwa la mu naman kule. Keraklan, malutu la o matuling, dapot atin muring aliwang kuleng mayayakit. Ating mapilan a uring balamu metal kintab, antimo ing genus a Pheidole ning Pangulung Amerika (North America).

Lon ya ing list of ant genera (alphabetical) para king listaan (a alphabetical o makasamasan agpang king alpabetu) da reng genus a panas king mabilug a yatu, at ing antbase.org/Hymenoptera Name Server para king metung a kumpletung katalugu da reng eganaganang species da reng panas king yatu a balu tamu ampo deng karelang synonym o katumbas a lagyu. Ing Antbase.org/Hymenoptera Name Server, atin yang up to date record of the actual number of species, nung nu la malyaring tukyan deng the description of new taxa.

Ing kaugnayan da reng panas kareng aliwang species[mag-edit | edit source]

  • Magpalwal lang lang mayumung likidung awsan dang honeydew deng

en:aphid. Keraklan, paburen dang mababaldug king gabun iti, pero nung maki panas, titipunan da iti. Deta namang panas ing mitatabi kareng lulub. Yalis do murin deng aphid kareng lugal a mas dakal pamangan.

  • Sosoga dong panas deng ulad (caterpillar) a myrmecophilous o malugud kareng panas (a maki kuleng asul/iro, kule tansu, o maki mapinung gulis [hairstreaks]). Dadala do reti kareng pipanganan neng aldo, at lulub do king sale da reng panas panga bengi. Atin lang glandula deng ulad a magpalwal honeydew neng apisan deng panas.
  • Anting ulad a myrmecophagous (mamangan panas) a magpalwal pheromone bangkanita bala ra reng panas, metung ya iti kareng sese rang ulad. Uli na niti, idala re iti ketang karelang sale, nung no malyaring kakan deng larva (detang anak) da reng panas.
  • Ita namang Allomerus decemarticulatus, gagamitan ne ing tanaman nung nu ya manuknangan ampo ing metung a fungus ba nong siluan deng kayang darakpan.
  • Kayabe la king tribe a attini deng panas a magpatubung fungus.

Kayabe la keti deng en:leafcutter ant, a tatanam king metung a uring fungus a kayabe kareng genus a Leucoagaricus o Leucocoprinus ning Agaricaceae family. Kaniting ugnayan ning panas ampong fungus, magdependi la reng adwang species king metung at metung bang kumabye

amanwan dang en:Devil's garden: papaten do ngan deng tanam a pakapadurut liban mu kareng dutung a lemon ant (lemon ant trees).

Deng tau ampo reng panas[mag-edit | edit source]

Maragul lang saup deng panas ba lang ilako deng pesting insektu at payanginan ya ing gabun. Nanupata, malyari lang mameruiciu nung luban do reng bale, mula, hardin ampong asikan. Manyira lang dutung deng en:carpenter ant kapamilatan ning pamamusbus king dutung ba reng gawang sale. Malyari lang siran deng sale nung tukyan la reng daralanan da reng panas angga king sale, a malyaring bulusanan bubukal a danum ba yang mate itang queen. (E makaing tatalab nung tunggal-tunggal la mung paten deng panas uling king pamagpalwal pheromone anti ing mebanggit king babo]. Malyaring gamitan ing karaniwan a atisa o chalk ba lang e lalapit deng panas. Malyari yang gumulis padurut king lugal a poprotektan kareng panas ba lang e lungub deti.

Ating species a awsan dang en:killer ants uling atin lang ugali deting sasalake kareng animal a maragul a e mu nanu karela neng manintun pamangan o magbante kareng sale ra. Malagad mung malilyari kareng tau iti, oneng masakit murin ing ket da, at nung dakal la retang panas, malyaring e ne makakimut itang meket.

Pane dong babanggitan kareng kwentu kareng anak deng panas anting alimbawa ning kasipagan at pamisaup-saup, ampo ning pamga-agresibu at pamanablas (benggansa). Atin namang lugal king Africa nung nu la sugu da reng dios deng panas. Marlas dang sasabyang makakayap ing ket da reng panas. Agpang king relihiun da reng mapilan a tubu ning American (native American), alimbawa king mitolohiya da reng Hopi, deng panas kanu ing minunang animal. Atin namang gagamit king ket da reng panas antimong pamanyubuk ning kapibabatan (test of endurance) king seremonyas ning initiation o pamaglub.

Lon la murin deti[mag-edit | edit source]

Deng pikwanan[mag-edit | edit source]

  • Agosti, D., Majer, J.D., Alonso, L.E., Schultz, T.R. (eds.) (2000).

Ants: Standard methods for measuring and monitoring biodiversity. Smithsonian Institution Press. 280 pp.

Agosti, D., Carpenter, J.M. (1997). New and resdiscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. American Museum Novitates 3208: 43pp, 24 figs., 1 tab.]

  • Jackson DE, Holcombe M, Ratnieks FLW (2004). Trail geometry gives

polarity to ant foraging networks. Nature 432: 907-909.

Suglung a palwal[mag-edit | edit source]

of the world linked to all available full text systematics publications (>4,000), links, pictures, etc.]

including all ant genera, specfic coverages for California (complete), Florida and Madagascar.]

Everything about ants]

state.edu:210/hymenoptera/tsa.sppcount?the_taxon=Formicidae Number of Known Ant Species (Ohio State)]

Photo Gallery] (Russian language)

woodants in reality?]

gallery of ants in the wild]

ants]

Article (pay site)]

along with an image gallery of ants]