Animal

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Animal
Fossil range: Late Neoproterozoic - Recent
Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and others.
Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and others.
Scientific classification
Sakup: Eukaryota
Kaarian: Animalia
Linnaeus, 1758
Phyla

Subregnum Parazoa

Subregnum Agnotozoa

Subregnum Eumetazoa

Metung lang manimunang grupu da reng organismu o lelangan deng a kayabe king kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. w:Multicellular la reng keraklan kareti, agyu dang kimut, mag-respondi la king karelang paligid, at mabibye la kapamilata’ning pamamangan kareng aliwang organismu. Magi yang permanenti (fixed) ing pangabalangkas ning karelang katawan kabang daragul la. Keraklan, bandang umpisa na pa ning panaun a daragu’la, potang embryo la pamu, malilyari na ini, dapot ating mapilan a dadalan king prosesu ning metamorphosis potang kayi. Mabibilang lang kayanib king animal kingdom deng tau.

Atin yang mapilan a kayuryan ing Kingdom Animalia a bukud kareng aliwang mabibye. Mumuna, w:eukaryotic la reng animal. Ini ing karelang pamiyaliwa king Kingdom Monera. Kadwa, w:multicellular la reng animal, a yang pamiyaliwa ra king w:Kingdom Protista. Katlu,w:heterotrophic la reti, anya aliwa la king w:Kingdom Plantae ampo reng miyayaliwang w:protist a kawangis da reng tanaman. Katatawlyan, bibilugan de ing Kingdom Animalia da reng organismung alang w:cell wall, anya aliwa ya king w:Kingdom Plantae, kareng algae, ampo kareng Kingdom Fungi.

Pinitna nong Aristotle deng eganaganang mabibyeng lelangan kareng animal ampong tanaman. Ini ing tikyan nang w:Carolus Linnaeus anyang gewa ne ing mumunang hierarchical classification o makaranggung pamanuri da reng organismu. Manibat anyang inumpisan dang dinan ulaga deng biologist ing evolutionary relationship o pamiugnayan a agpang king penibatan, melati la at mebawasan deng grupung deti. Alimbawa, tuturing dong animal deng mangalatiktik a protozoa uling kikimut la, dapot ngeni, kewani ra na la. King karaniwan a pamisabi-sabi, ampo kareng mapilan a relihiun, tuturing dong makakawani kareng animal deng tau uling agyu ra ing pamagsalita, matas a uri ing karelang pamanisip, o uling ila ing pinili ning metung a dios, dapot nung tukyan tamu ing salukuyang batayan o panyukad ning biologia ampong taxonomy, kayanib la kareng animal deti. Ibat ya ing lagyung animal king katayang w:Latin a animal, a animalia no man nung daka’la. Ing penibata’na naman niti, itang katayang anima, a maki kabaldugan a diwa o kaladwa.

Pangabalangkas (structure)[mag-edit | edit source]

Liban kareng mapilan a organismu, lalu na reng w:sponge (Phylum w:Porifera), bibilugan do reng miyayaliwang klasing tissues o kalamnan deng animal. Kayabe la kareti deng [w:muscle]], a malyaring murung at maging sangkan ning pamangimut, at ing w:nervous_system, a yang magparla at mag-process kareng sinyal. Atin muring lugal king kilub ning karelang katawan nung nu malilyari ing pamaglaso (digestion king karelang pamangan, a maki metung o adwang busbus. Metazoan ing aus da kareng animal a anti kaniti pangabalangkas, o eumetazoan naman nung magagamit ya kareng animal king pangkabilugan itang mumunang kataya (metazoan).

Atin lang eukaryotic a cell deng eganaganang animal, nung nu makapadurut ing w:extracellular matrix a bibilugan ning w:collagen ampong w:glycoprotein a elastic o mayayatyat. Malyari yang sapak o katmung w:calcium iti at bumilug bageng anti reng kapsa (shell), butul, ampong spicule. Potang daragul ya pamu ing animal, metung ya iting pekabalangkas a malyaring ibaluktut (flexible), nung nu la malyaring kimut-kimut deng cell at mibayu pangasamasan. Uli na niti, malyaring gawang bage o dake ning katawan a komplikadu o dakal a sangkap. E anti kareng aliwang organismung multicellular anti kareng tanaman ampong fungus, nung nu la makakabit kapamilatan da reng [[w:cell wall], anya tuki-tuki at pasulung ing pamandagul da reti. Metung pa, bukud la mung kareng cell da reng animal mayayakit deng makatuking pamituglung king pilatan da reng cell (intercellular junctions): tight junction, w:gap junction, and w:desmosome.

Ing pamiparakal da at pamanalkus (reproduction and development)[mag-edit | edit source]

Dadalan la king metung a klasing w:sexual reproduction deng alus eganaganang animal. w:Diploid la reng mangaragul na o atyu na king ustung edad, at neng kayi, w:polyploid la reti. Deti, atin lang mapilan a reproductive cell a bukud kareng aliwa (specialized). Dadalan la reti king w:meiosis, a gagawang mas mangalating w:spermatozoa, o mas mangaragul a w:ovum. Misasanib la reti at bibilug king w:zygote, a yang panibatan da reng bayung animal.

Malyari la muring dumalan king w:asexual reproduction deng dakal kareng animal. Mapalyaring king kapamilatan ning w:parthenogenesis marapat iti, nung nu mikaka ebun a malalaus agyang alang “mating” a malilyari, o neng kayi kapamilata’ning pamipitna-pitna o pamipira-pirasu.

Potang mumuna, ing w:zygote magi yang anting bolang alang laman king kilub, a yawsan dang w:blastula. Manaliwa ya pangasamasan at itsura iti, at magi lang myayaliwang klasi deng kayang cell. Kareng sponge, kakawe la reng larva ning blastula papunta king metung a bayung karinan o lugal, nung ya lunto ing metung a bayung sponge. Karen namang keraklan kareng animal, lalung komplikadu ing pamagbayu ning blastula. Mumuna, mag-invaginate ya (magtuklip yang palub ing metung nang “pisni”) ban lunto ya ing metung a gastrula, a maki digestive chamber (bakanting lugal nung nu malalaso ing pamangan), at adwang mikakawaning germ layer – metung a w:ectoderm a makalwal, at metung a w:endoderm a makalub. Keraklan, atin pang laltong w:mesoderm king pilatan da reng adwang mitutumpak a reti. Kaybat, manaliwa (differentiate) la reting germ layer, at ilang maging kalamnan (tissue) ampong laman lub (organ).

Penibatan ampong fossil record[mag-edit | edit source]

Paniwalan da reng keraklan a menibat la reng animal kareng protozoa a w:flagellate o maki flagellum. Pekamalapit dong kamaganak deng w:choanoflagellate, a flagellate a maki collar o tela- kwelyu, a kawangis da reng mapilan a sponge cell. Agpang king pamanigaral king karelang DNA, kayanib la reti king metung a maragul a grupu o supergroup a awsan dang w:opisthokont, nung nu la murin kayabe deng w:fungus, at mapilan a mangalating w:protist a parasitiku. Menibat ya ing lagyu king pangabili ning w:flagellum, a atyu king dake nang gulut da reng cell a kikimut (motile cells), antimo king sperm da reng animal, e anti kareng aliwang eukaryote, nung nu ing dake rang arap ing maki flagellum.

Linto la reng mumunang fossil a malyaring tang asabing kareng animal anyang bandang wakas ning panaun a en:Precambrian, anam a ralan a milyung en:600 million banwa na ing milabas. en:Vendian biota ing aus da kareti. Nanupata, e malino ing pamiugne da reti kareng fossil a linto kaybat da. Malyaring menibat la kareng mapilan kareti deng phylum ngening panaun tamu, o mapalyari namang aliwa lang grupu. Posibling e la man bitasang animal detang fossil. Bukud kareti, alus miyagnan-agnan lang linto deng keraklan kareng phylum da reng animal anyang panaun a en:Cambrian, limandalan at pitumpulung milyung en:570 million banwa ing milabas. Ala pang pamikasundu nung ining pangapalyaring iti, a mayayaus a en:Cambrian explosion, metung yang pamikawa- kawani da reng miyayaliwang grupu, o minaliwa ing kabilyan, at milyaring mika fossil.

Deng grupu da reng animal[mag-edit | edit source]

Maranun long mikawani deng sponge (w:Porifera) kareng aliwang animal. Anti ing mebanggit na, e mayayakit karela ing komplikadung pangabalangkas a atyu kareng aliwang phylum (maragul a grupu da reng animal at aliwang organismu). Agyang miyayaliwa nong klasi (differentiated) deng cell da reti, e la pa bibilug aliwa-liwang uring kalamnan. E la mamalis lugal (sessile) deng sponge, at mamangan la kapamilatan ning “pamanyipsip” danum palub kareng busbus (w:pore} king mabilug dang katawan, a susuportan ning metung a skeleton a bibilugan da reng spicule. Malyaring kayabe ya murin kareng sponge itang w:Archaeocyatha a mewala na (extinct), o aliwa yang phylum iti.

Karetang phylum a eumatozoan, adwa la reng maki radial symmetry at maki digestive chamber (karinan a pipaglasawan pamangan) a maki metung mung busbus, a yang magsilbing piluluban pamangan at pilulwalan pengan. Deni reng en:Cnidari, nung nu la kayabe deng w:anemone, w:coral, ampong en:jellyfish, at saka reng w:Ctenophora o comb jelly. Pareu lang maki makakawaning tissue o uri ning kalamnan, dapot e la pa bibilug laman lub o laman lub deti. Adwa la mu reng germ layer, deng ectodern ampong endoderm, at maki cell a makakalat king pilatan da reti. Uli na niti, awsan dong w:diploblastic deti. Kawangis de reti ing malating phylum a w:Placozoa, mupin ala lang permanenting pilalasawan pamangan deni.

Detang aliwa pang animal, bibilug lang monophyletic (metung mu penibatan) a grupung awsan dang w:Bilateria. Keraklan kareti, bilateral la symmetry, at makabukud ne gamit o katungkulan (specialized) ing buntuk a maki parti yang gagamitan bang mangan at panamdaman ing kayang paligid (sense organs). Triploblastic ya ing kayang katawan; buri nang sabyan, malino na la deng atlung germ layer, at bibilug nong ayawus tamung organ deng kalamnan. Adwa ya busbus ing pilalasawan pamangan, ing asbuk ampo ing peka-buldit, at atin muring bakanting lugal kilub katawan o internal body cavity a awsan dang coelom o pseudocoelom. Nanupata, ating e tutuki kareng kayuryan a reti. Alimbawa, radial ing symmetry da reng en:echinoderm a maragul na (adult), at misna namang simpli ing pangabalangkas ning katawan da reng mapilan a bulating parasitiku.

Uling kareng pamanigaral king genetics, minaliwa nang bagya ing balu tamu tungkul king Bilateria. Kayabe la kareng apat a manimunang lahi ding keraklan kareti:

  1. w:Deuterostomes
  2. w:Ecdysozoa
  3. w:Platyzoa
  4. w:Lophotrochozoa

Bukud pa kareti, atin pang mapilan a mangalating grupu da reng animal king Bilateria a kawangis da katawan deti, a malyaring kinawani bayu deng manimunang grupung deti. Kayabe no kareti deng en:Acoelomorpha, en:Rhombozoa, at en:Orthonectida. Paniwalan da ngening detang en:Myxozoa, parasitikung tunggal mu cell at sadyang rang tuturing a kayabe king Protozoa, ibat la murin pala king Bilateria.

Deng Deuterostome[mag-edit | edit source]

Atin lang mapilan a e pamilupa kareng aliwang Bilateria, a awsan dang w:protostome, deng w:Deuterostome. Kumpletu ya ing digestive tract (dadalanan ning pamangan) kareng adwang grupu. Nanupata, mági yang asbuk itang mumunang busbus kareng protostome (itang archenteron), at makakawani yang lalto itang maging pekabuldit. Baligtad naman ing malilyari kareng protostome. Kareng protostome, kakatmwan deng cell ing kilub ning gastrula ba yang lunto ing mesoderm, at ini awsan dang schizocoelous development. Samantala, kareng deuterostome, malilyari iti kapamilatan ning w:evagination ning endoderm, a awsan dang enterocoelic pouching. Ken yang gulut (dorsal] ing nerve chord da reng deuterostome (e ya ventral o king arap anti kareng protostome), at king aliwang paralan malilyari ing cleavage o pamipitna-pitna da reng karelang embryo.

Balamu, ing lalto kaniting mebanggit, mikakawani lang lahi deng deuterostome at protostome, at ing balang metung kareti, atin ya mung metung a penibatan. Deng manimunang phylum da reng deuterostome ila reng w:Echinodermata ampong w:Chordata. Radial ing symmetry ning mumunang grupu, at purus lang king dagat mabibye. Kayabe la kareng echinoderm deng w:sea star, w:sea urchin, ampong w:sea cucumber. Keta namang kadwang grupu, deng chordate, deng vertebrate o animal a maki galugud, ilang manimuna. Kayabe la kareti deng asan, amphibian, w:reptile, ayup, ampong mammal.

Bukud pa kareti, kayabe la murin kareng deuterostome deng w:Hemichordata o acorn worm. Agyang e la makaing kilala ngeni deng grupung deti, kayanib la keti deng maulagang fossil a awsan dang graptolite. Mapalyari muring deuterostome la deng w:Chaetognatha o arrow worm, oneng e makaing siguradu ini.

Deng Ecdysozoa[mag-edit | edit source]

Protostome la reng en:Ecdysozoa, a pepalagyuan da uling ketang karelang daraptan a pamag-molt o pamaglupi (pamanaliling balat o en:ecdysis. Kayabe ya keti ing pekamaragul a phylum da reng animal, ing en:Arthropoda, nung nu la kayabe deng insektu, babagwa, ema, ampo reng karelang kamaganak. Mapipitna ya ing katawan da reti kareng dakeng lupa-lupa, a keraklan maki bitis a mipaparis. Makanyan la murin kayuryan deng adwa pang mas mangalating phylum, deng en:Onychophora ampong en:Tardigrada, a malapit dang kamaganak deng arthropod.

Tuturing da la muring ecdysozoan deng en:Nematoda o roundworm, ing kadwang pekamaragul a phylum da reng animal. Mangalatiktik (microscopic at mayayakit la mu keng microscope) deng keraklan kareng roundworm, at mabibye la reti king halus balang lugal a maki danum. Manimuna lang parasitiku deng mapilan kareti. Kayabe la kareng kamaganak da reti deng en:Nematomorpha o horsehair worm, a mayayakit agyang alang gagamitan a instrumentu, ampo reng Kinorhyncha, en:Priapulida, ampong en:Loricifera, a mayayakit mu kapamilata’ning microscope. E ne kumpletu ing coelom da reti, a mayayaus pseudocoelom.

Neng kai, piyayabe ra la king Spiralia deng adwang mitatagan a grupu da reng protostome, uling king paralan a spiral (makabalibul) ing pamipitna o cleavage da reng embryo da reti.

Deng Platyzoa[mag-edit | edit source]

Kayanib la king Platyzoa deng phylum w:Platyhelminthes, deng flatworm. Anyang purmeru, tuturing do reting kayabe kareng pekamatwang uring (primitive) Bilateria, pero ngeni balamu laltong ibat la reti kareng mas makabayung pipumpunan. Kayabe la king grupung deti deng mapilan a parasitiku, antimo deng w:fluke ampong en:tapeworm. Ala lang coelom deng flatworm, kalupa da reng pekamalapit dang kamaganak, deng microscopic a w:Gastrotrichia.

Microscopic la at pseudocoelomate deng aliwa pang phylum a platyzoan. Deng w:Rotifera, a marlas mayayakit kareng lugal a maranum, ing kilalang dili kareti. Kayabe la murin deng w:Acanthocephala spiny-headed worms (bulating masuksuk buntuk), deng en:Gnathostomulida, w:Micrognathozoa, at malyaring deng w:Cycliophora. Para- pareu lang maki komplikadung panga dening grupung deti, at uli na niti, awsan dong w:Gnathifera.

Deng Lophotrochozoa[mag-edit | edit source]

Kayabe la kareng Lophotrichia deng adwa kareng maragul diling phylum da reng phylum da reng animal, deng w:Mollusca ampong en:Annelida. Kayabe la king mumuna deng animal kalupa da reng susu (animal), talaba, ampong pusit. Den namang kadwa, deng Annelida, bibilugan do reng bulating segmented antimo reng w:earthworm ampo reng linta. Malwat da nong tuturing a mikamaganak dening adwang deti uling pareu lang ating w:trocophore larvae, oneng mas malapit la kanu deng annelid kareng arthropod uling pareu lang segmented. Ngeni, sasabyan dang convergent evolution ini (itang aliwa la penibatan at mikatagun a mipareu la king metung a kayuryan, ita ping segmented la), uling kareng dakal dang pamiyaliwa king itsura ning karelang katawan ampo king karelang DNA (ing sangkap a magdala kareng kauryan, alimbawa itsura, a pamana da reng pengari karing supling).

Kayabe la kareng Lophotrochozoa deng w:Nemertea o ribbon worm, deng w:Sipuncula, at mapilan a phylum a maki tela-pamepeng cilia a makapadurut king karelang asbuk, a awsan dang [w:lophophore]]. Kanitang minuna, abe-abe la king grupung lophophorate dening animal a reti, oneng ngeni, laltong w:paraphyletic la reti; mas malapit la king Nemertea deng mapilan, kabang kamaganak da no man deng Mollusca ampong Annelida detang aliwa. Kayabe la king grupung deti deng w:Brachiopoda o lamp shells, a kapansin-pansin king fossil record, deng w:Entoprocta, en:Phoronida, at malyaring deng w:Ectoprocta o moss animal.

Ing kasalesayan ning pamanuri (classification)[mag-edit | edit source]

Ketang minuna nang planung Linnaeus, metung la reng animal kareng atlung kingdom. Mapipitna la reti kareng class a w:Vermes, [[insektu|Insecta], Pisces, w:Amphibia, Aves ampong Mammalia. Manibat kanita, miyanib no ngan king metung a phylum, ing w:Chordata, deng tawling apat, kabang pikawani da no man detang aliwa. Ing mebanggit king babo ing kekatamung paglalawe king grupung iti king salukuyan, dapot ating ditak a pamiyaliwa dependi nung ninu ing kutnan.

Deng alimbawa[mag-edit | edit source]

Dening makatuki ila reng mapilan kareng pekakilalang animal, a makalista lalam da reng karelang karaniwan a lagyu o common name.

Lon la murin deti[mag-edit | edit source]

Suglung palual[mag-edit | edit source]

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