Ebolusyon

Ibat king Wikipedia
Lundag ka king: pamaglibut, paintunan
I Charles Darwin, ing igpa ning teorya ning ebolusyon kapamilata’ning natural selection.

King biologia, ing ebolusyon ing prosesu nung nukarin manikwa lang kauryan (trait) deng populasyon da reng mabibye at pámana do reti kareng tutuking henerasyun o dai. I Jean-Baptiste Lamarck ing migmunikala (proposed) king metung kareng mumunang teorya ning ebolusyon anyang umpisa ning kalabingsyam a siglu (19th century). Inukul (speculate) nang deng tunggal-tunggal a organismu o lelangan (individual organisms) manikwa lang kauryan kabang mabye la, at pamana do reti kareng supling da. Agyang mipatunayan neng e tutu ing teoryang iti, miyapag ing pekamaulagang dake ning makabayung teorya ketang artikulung dang adwang Charles Darwin ampong Alfred Russell Wallace (1858), ampo ketang libru nang Darwin a en:The Origin of Species (1859).

Agpang king teorya ning evolution kapamilatan ning [[:en:natural selection|natural selection]] a pepamunikala da ri Darwin at Wallace, malilyari ing evolution uling lalaganap ya ing metung a kauryan a makaragdag king pamikatagun (chance) a magparakal ya ing metung a mabibye, kapamilata’ning pamagmana, kareng tutuking dai o henerasyun. Makanyan murin, lumagad ya ing metung a kauryan a makabawas king pamikatagun a magparakal ya ing metung a mabibye. Kanitang dekadang [[en:1930s|1930], menigobra la reng siyentipiku ba reng piyabe ing metuklas pasibayung teorya ning puli – a pepamunikala nang Mendel – ampo ing natural selection nang Darwin, at milalang ya ing [[:en:modern evolutionary synthesis|makabayung pamisanib ning teoryang ebolusyon]] , a metung kareng pekamaulagang (fundamental) teorya ning ciencia ning makabayung biologia. King makabayung pamisanib a iti, ing “ebolusyon” mangabaldugan yang pamanaliwa king pangalaganap (frequency) ning metung a allele kilub ning metung a gene pool kareng tuki-tuking henerasyun o dai. Myayaliwa la reng kaparalanan a lunto ing pamanaliwang iti: natural selection, [[:en:genetic drift|genetic drift]] o pamanaliwa king (gene flow) ning balangkas ning populasyun (population structure gene flow).

Teorya king ciencia

Atlu la reng manimuna nang aspetu ning teoryang nung nu ya makabasi ing makabayung pamisanib”

  1. Menibat la king metung mung pipumpunan deng eganaganang

mabibye.

  1. The manifestation of novel traits in a lineage.
  2. The mechanisms that cause some traits to persist while others perish.

Metung yang teorya ning ciencia ing makabayung pamisanib, kalupa da retang penibatan nang teoryang ibat kang Mendel ampong Darwin. Ing metung a teorya ning ciencia, anti neng salamin ning yatu (o metung a dake na niti). Manibat kaniti, malyaring gawang hypothesis a malyaring pabulanan o patutwan kapamilatan ning empirical observation. Nung paglalaweng anti kaniti, e la misasalungat ding katayang “teorya” (theory) ampong “katutwan” (fact), nun e anti mong mipaglibe o mipanablas (reciprocal) ing pamiugnayan da reti — alimbawa, metung a “katutwan” a matulid yang mabaldug papunta king libutad ning yatu ing metung a mansanas a nikbag ra king gabun, at ing “teorya” a mag-isplika kaniti, yapin ing salukuyan a teorya ning gravitation. Ing bayung pamisanib ing peka[[predictive power|masikan]] a teoryang mag-isplika king pamiyaliwa-liwa da reng mabibye ampong pamanalto da reng bayung uri da reng mabibye, at kilub ning ciencia ning biologia, lubusan na nong ayalilan deng minunang pamag-isplika king penibatan da reng uri da reng mabibye.

Ing penibatan (ancestry) da reng mabibye

Pre-Cambrian Deng stromatolite king Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. Kanitang 2002, milimbag yang kontrobersyal a artikulu i William Schopf ning UCLA king peryodikung Nature nung nu na sasabyang maki idad nong 3.5 bilyung banwa katwa deng formations a anti kaniti Deng fossil a mikrobyung lumut. [1] Nung tutu iti, ila ing mumunang diling balu tamung lelangan king yatu.
Metung a phylogenetic tree da reng eganaganang mabibye, a basi kareng datos a ibat king pamanyuri king rRNA gene. Papakit na ing pamikawani da reng atlung domains, deng bacteria, archaea, ampong eukaryotes agpang king pamaglarawan nang Carl Woese. Keraklan, kawangis no murin deng phylogenetic tree a migulis kapamilatan da reng aliwang genes, oneng malyaring aliwa lang lunto deng minunang grupung minyanga, mapalyaring uli king malagwang pamanaliwa (rapid evolution) ning tRNA. Ala pang pamikasundu nung nanu ing eksaktung rang relasyun o pamisuglungan.
Pepakit ning genetic testing a milulupa ing keraklan king en:DNA da reng tau ampong chimpanzee. King metung a pamanigaral kareng syam a pulung libung (90,000) base pair, abalu nang Morris Goodman ning Wayne State University a pareu ing 99.4% ning DNA da reng tau ampo reng chimpanzee.[2] [3].

ning NASA ketang kilalang eksperimentung Miller-Urey. Kanitang 1953, piyaben-abayan do ri Stanley Miller ampong Harold Urey deng sangkap a panibatan ning bye (chemical precursors to life) king metung a lulanan a selyadu, at kine ro king kabilyan a kalupa ning anti king yatu kanitang minuna.]]

Para kareng karagdagang detalye tungkul king this topic, lon ya ing Common descent.

Malyaring masabing metung ya penibatan ing metung a grupu da reng mabibye nung para-pareu la pipumpunan. Sasabyan ning theory of universal common descent ning biologia a ibat la king metung a pipumpunan o metung a gene pool kanitang minuna deng eganaganang mabibye king yatu.

Patune lang metung la mu penibatan deng eganaganang mabibye detang kauryan (traits) a atyu kareng eganagana kareti. Kanitang panaun nang Darwin, makabasi mu king pamagumasid kareng pamilupa ning [[:en:morphology (biology)|pangabalangkas]] da reng mabibye, antimo itang deng ayup — agyang e la makasulapo — atin lang pakpak. Ngeni, mika masikan a pamipatune para king ebolusyon ibat king ciencia ning DNA genetics. Alimbawa, gagamit yang nucelic acid antimong genetic material (itang sangkap a magdala kareng kauryan anti ing itsura o kule tamu kareng tutuking henerasyun o dai). Deta muring adwang pulung [[:en:amino acid|amino acid]] ing gagamitan dang building block da reng protina. Metung ya mung genetic code ing genetic code a gagamitan da reng eganaganang mabibye (bukud mu kareng mangalagad a alimbawa) ba rong ilikas deng pamituki-tuki da reng nucleic acid papunta kareng protina. Uling antimong mikatagun ing pamamili kareng kauryan a reti, mapalyaring tanda ne ning metung la mu penibatan deng eganaganang mabibye itang pangkabilugan lang mayayakit deti.

abiogenesis — ing pamaglalang king bye manibat king sangkap a e mabye — a mangabaldugang misnang lagad ing pamaglalang ning bye ibat king kayalang-bye, o malilyari mu iti lalam da reng kabilyan a aliwang- aliwang kareng atyu king yatu tamu ngeni. Anti na mong sasabyan ning eksperimentung Miller-Urey a malilyari ing abiogenesis lalam ning kabilyan kanitang minunang panaun king yatu.

Uling misna yang lambat ing prosesu ning ebolusyun, kaylangan a matwa neng tutu ing yatu bang lunto ing e mu nanung pamiyaliwa-liwa at panga-komplikadu ning bye ngening panaun tamu; mapalyaring bilyun-bilyun neng banwa katwa. Makabage iti king katibayan ibat king geologia a migit-kumulang [[:en:Age of the earth|4.6 neng bilyung banwa]]. Lon ya ing [[:en:Timeline of evolution|Timeline of evolution]].)

Kayabe king balu tamu tungkul king ebolusyun itang datos ibat kareng larangan ning geologia ampong planetary science. Babye lang impormasyun tungkul king kasalesayan ning Yatu ampo reng pamanaliwang bunga ning bye. Dakal king impormasyun tungkul king Yatu kanitang minuna ing mewala uling kareng geological processes king pangalabas ning panaun.

Deng katibayan para king ebolusyon

Ing katibayan ibat king pangabalangkas da reng mabibye

Maulaga la reng fossil neng tatantyan tamu nung kapilan la linto reng myayaliwang lahi. Uling e karaniwang malilyari ing fossilization, a mangaylangang mangasyás a parti (antimo ing butul) at ing pangamate lele ning metung a lugal nung nukarin mititipun ing banlik, e kumpletu at malagad ing impormasyun a bibye na niti tungkul king ebolusyun ning bye. Malagad mu ing katibayan para kareng sadyang mabibyeng alang mangasyas a dake antimo reng kapsa, talukab, butul ampong ipan, pero ating ditak kaniti, alimbawa itang kareng microfossil o mangalatiktik a fossil ibat kanitang minuna pang panaun, ampo ing pamagi rang fossil deng kilkulan da reng minunang animal (ancient burrows) ampo reng ditak a mabibye kanitang mangalambut katawan.

Nanupata, ating katibayan tungkul kareng mabibye kanitang minunang panaun kareng fossil a mayayakit king mabilug a Yatu. Keraklan, malyari yang ulan ing katwa da reng fossil king kabilyan da at kauryan deng batu (geologic context) nung nu la meyakit; at ita mismung idad da malyari yang makwa kapamilata’ning radiometric dating. Kawangis do reng aliwang fossil deng mabibye ngeni, samantalang atin namang aliwang-aliwa. Gagamitan do reng fossil ba rang abalu nung kapilan ya linto ing metung a lahi, at gagamitan do reng transitional fossil ba rang ipakit ing pamisuglung o pamiugnayan da reng adwang lahi. Panigaralan da reng paleontologist ing ebolusyun, keraklan king kapamilatan ning pamanyuri kareng fossil.

Agpang king phylogeny o pamanigaral kareng species (uri da reng mabibye), malyari lang mika myayaliwang gamit deng dake ning katawan a milulupa pangabalangkas (similar internal organization). Malyaring mika vestigial organ a ditak o alang silbi king metung a mabibye, agyang malino ing kayang gamit kareng aliwa. Alimbawa la kareti deng wisdom teeth ampong appendix da reng tau.

Katibayan ibat king genetic sequence

Papakit ning metung a pamiyanti da reng genetic sequence da reng mabibye a mas milulupa la sequence deng mabibyeng mikanlapit basi king phylogeny kesa karetang mikandayu. Alimbawa, manga 1.2% ing pamiyaliwa (basi king substitution) ning neutral DNA sequence da reng tau kareng pekamalapit dang kamaganak, deng chimpanzee, 1.6% kareng gorilla [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstr act&list_uids=11170892], at 6.6% kareng baboon[4]. Mituturing yang masikan (robust enough) a panyukad ing sequence comparison a malyari yang gamitan ba lang samasan deng pamagkamali king phylogenetic tree nung kulang la reng aliwang katibayan.

Atin pang karagdagang katibayan para king metung mung penibatan da reng mabibye ibat kareng genetic detritus (detang “basurang” gene) atni reng pseudogene, o rehiyon ning DNA a orthologous king metung a gene king aliwang klasing mabibye, dapot e no magagamit at anti lang taglus- taglus a mimina at mababawas (degeneration) [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstr act&list_uids=10833048].

Uling e la maglakwan fossil deng prosesung metaboliku, mararapat ing pamanyaliksik kareng pekamaulagang kaparalanan da reng cell kapamilatan ning pamiyanti (comparison) kareng lelangan a mabibye ngeni. Uling myayaliwa lang panaun mikawa-kawani deng lahi, malyari tamung abalu nung kapilan ya linto ing metung a prosesung metaboliku nung piyanti (o ikumpara) ta la reng kauryan da reng paliping (descendant) ibat king metung a pipumpunan (common ancestor).

Ing penibatan ning bye

Pun bulung: Origin of life

Ditak mu ing balu tamu tungkul king pamagumpisa ning bye. Nanupata, atin lang pamilupa king kauryan deng eganaganang mabibye ngeni, kayabe no reng pamibalangkas ning cell (cellular structure) ampo ing genetic code. Para kareng keraklan kareng siyentipiko, mangabaldugan iting metung la mu pipumpunan deng eganaganang mabibye ngeni, at atyu no king pipumpunan a ita deng pekamaulagang prosesu ning cell. Nanupata, ala lang pamikasundu deng siyentipiku king pamisuglung-suglung da reng atlung domain ning bye, deng (Archea, Bacteria, at Eukaryota), o ing penibatan ning bye. Keraklan, makatutuk king pamangimut (behavior) da reng macromolecule, lalu na ing RNA, ampo kareng komplikadung sistema, deng tangkang manigaral king mumuna nang kasalesayan ning bye.

Ing kasalesayan ning bye

Agyang e malino ing penibatan ning bye, balu ta lang mayap deng aliwang maulagang milyari king kasalesayan ning bye. Malyari ta yang tukyan ing pamanalto ning photosynthesis a gagamit king oxygen (manga atlung bilyung banwa na ing milabas) ampo ing pamaniral ning atmosperang dakal oxygen (lipat ning “reducing” a atmospera) kapamilatan ning pamanalkus (formation) da reng depositu ning banded iron, at kaybat deng mangalutung sapin a gawa king iron oxide. Kaylangang dumalan king anti kaniti bayu mika [[:en:aerobic respiration|aerobic]] en:cellular respiration, a paniwalan dang linto adwang bilyung banwa na ing milabas. Ketang milabasan a metung a bilyung banwa, linto la kareng kadayatan deng simpling tanaman at animal a multicellular (gawa king dakal a cell). E miglwat kaybat ning pamanalto da reng minunang animal, milyari ing Cambrian explosion (metung a panaun ning alang kapante at makapagmulala, dapot saguli mung, pamanalto da reng asnang karakal a uri da reng mabibye a mitatak kareng fossil ning [[:en:Burgess shale|Burgess shale]]), nung kapilan la milalang deng eganaganang balangkas ning katawan, o phylum, da reng mabibye ngeni; paniwalan dang ing pamanalto ning Box gene ing megi nang sangkan ning pamikatagung iti. Manga limang dalan a milyun (500 million) a banwa ing milabas, sekupan de reng tanaman ampong fungi ing gabun, at e miglwat, tikyan do reng en:arthropod ampo reng aliwang aniamal. Ini ing pigmulan ning pamanalkus (development) ning ecosystem king gabun a balu tamu ngeni.

Ing pamanalto da reng bayung kauryan

Ing mutation

Pun bulung: Mutation

E na balung Darwin ing panibatan da ning pamanaliwa (variations) kareng indibidwal a mabibye, pero apansinan nang balamu mikatagun mu iti. Kalabas ning panaun, ing mutation ing tiru rang sangkan king keraklan kareti. Deng mutation, permanenti lang pamanaliwa king genetic material (keraklan ing DNA o RNA ning metung a [[:en:cell (biology)|cell]]. Malyari lang manibat king pamagkamali king pamangopya (copying error) king genetic material neng mararapat ing [[:en:cell division|cell division]], ampo king “pangabilad” king radiation, at kareng chemical, kareng [[:en:virus (biology)|virus]], o malyaring sasaryan a lunto lalam ning pamanibala ning cell neng meiosis o hypermutation. Kareng lelangan a multicellular, malyari lang uryan deng mutation kareng germline mutation, a malyaring mipamana kareng supling, ampo reng somatic mutation, a (nung e la sasaryan) keraklan mumuli king pangasira na palakad o pangamate ning cell, at malyari nang panibatan ning kanser.

Mágsilbi lang magdalang pamanaliwa kareng gene (genetic variation) deng mutation, a malyari nang impluwensyan ning natural selection (o mapalyaring ali; lon ya ing Neutral mutations). Ala lang epektu king tsansa o pamikatagun nang kumabye ning lelangan king kayang paligid deng neutral mutations, at malyari lang mitipun deti king pangalabas ning panaun.

Ing pamanatili da reng kauryan (traits)

Deng kaparalanan ning pamagmana (Mechanisms of inheritance)

Kanitang panaun nang Darwin, e la mikakasundu reng siyentipiku nung makananu lang amamana deng kauryan. Ngeni, yugne ta la reng kauryan a amamana (inherited traits) kareng makakawani (discrete) at lulwat (persistent) a bageng awsan dang gene, tuglung-tuglung kareng tela-gulis (linear) a molecule a awsan dang DNA. Lipat ning keraklan eksaktu ing pamamgopya kaniti, atin yang pamiyaliwa ing DNA ning balang metung a mabibye, at dadalan ya king prosesu ning pamanaliwa o mutation a ma-isplika king lalam.

Nanupata, atin muring paralan ning pamagmana ning pamiyaliwang e makabasi king DNA. E miyayapektwan ing impormasyun kareng gene kareting prosesung deti, at keraklan, malyari lang ibalik king sadya (reversible). [[:en:epigenetic inheritance|Epigenetic inheritance]] ing aus kareti, nung nu la kayabe deng alimbawang anti ing DNA methylation, prion, ampong [[structural inheritance| structural inheritance]]. Taglus-taglus pa murin ing pamanyaliksik nung malyari kareti ing “specific heritable variation” antimong ablas kareng sinyal ibat king paligid. Nung ini pin ing mararapat, mapalyaring ating mapilang alimbawa ning ebolusyon a e na sakup ning karaniwan a balu tamung balangkas ning teorya nang Darwin, a lilisya king pamiugne kareng sinyal ibat king paligid ketang pamipalyari ning pamiyaliwang amamana (production of heritable variation).

Ating mapilan a sangkan a mamapektu king frequency da reng allele a atyu na. Uli da reng sangkan a reti, malyari lang mas marlas lunto deng mapilan a kauryan, kabang mabawas no man o taglus-taglus nong mawala detang aliwa. Atlu la reng balu tamung prosesung mamapektu king pamanatili ning metung a kauryan; o, bang lalung partikular, ing frequency na ning allele:

Ing natural selection

Pun bulung: Natural selection

Ing natural selection ing pangabye (survive) pamiparakal uling king kapaligiran. Ing differential mortality ing kaugnayan ning dalas ning pangabye da reng lelangan king karelang idad a malyari nong mikasupling (reproductive age) Ing differential fertility ing pangkabilugan a ambag a amamana (total genetic contribution) king tutuking dai o henerasyun. Uli ning pekamaulaga nang papil (central role) ning natural selection king teorya ning ebolusyon, mika maragul a pamisuglung king larangan a ita ampo ing pamanigaral king ecologia.

Malyari yang pitnan ing natural selection kareng adwang kategorya:

miraragdagan la reng gene da reng lelangan a mabibye at darakal kumpara karetang e ra ikwang kinabye .

la ambag king gene pool deng lelangan a mas abuburi da reng kasumangid a kasarian (opposite sex) uling king karelang itsura o kauryan, at uli na niti, mas masikan lang dakal.

Kikimut ya murin ing natural selection king myayaliwang paralan:

selection|background selection]] lalako no reng mutation a makasira king populasyon.

frequency ning metung a mutation a makasaup.

pamiyaliwa (variation) kilub ning metung a populasyon, kapamilatan ning mapilan a kaparalanan (mechanism), alimbawa:

advantage|heterozygote advantage]], nung nu ing heterozygote mas masikan ya o bage (fit) kesa king sanuman kareng anyung puru (homozygous forms) (alimbawa king [[:en:sickle cell anemia|sickle cell anemia]] kareng tau a babye resistensya king malaria)

nu mas matas la “fitness” o pangabage deng uring malagad mu (rare variants).

uryan a karaniwan king populasyun, anya mibabawasan ing pamiyaliwa at manatili ya ing mean o kasantingan

metung a sepu o sikoti ning metung a uryan; uli na niti, dudusug ya ing mean o kasantingan papunta ketang sepung ita.

misusumangid o mingatbang sikoti, at magbunga king bimodal distribution ning gene frequency. Malyari yang malis o malyari yang ali ing mean o kasantingan.

neutral mutations ing aus da kareng mutation a e na tatalaban ning natural selection. Bukud mung ing genetic drift ampong gene flow ing mamapektu king karelang dalas o frequency king populasyun. Paniwalan dang nung alang selection, ala lang patugut miraragdagan deng neutral mutation. Agpang king probable mutation effect, siran de reng mitipun-tipun a mutation ing gene a e miyayapektwan king selection o pamamili. Aspetu ne ning genome degradation iti.

antimong animal a maki kalinangan o kultura, agyu rang mabyasa [symbolic (extrasomatic) learning], at uli na niti, agyu reng alilan ing karelang paligid, o ing paligid ning sanumang aliwang uri ning lelangan, at iti panibatan da reng bayung selective forces o sangkan a mamapektu king pamamili.

Ing gene flow

Ing gene flow (o gene admixture o pamisamut da reng gene) ing bukud o magdilidiling kaparalanan o mechanism nung nukarin malyari lang mikanlapit (king aspetung genetic o king puli/pamamuli) deng populasyun kabang daragul ya la reng gene pool. Ing gene flow ing magbunga nung malis ya ing metung a populasyun da reng lelangan king lugal nung nukarin atin nang sadyang makatuknang a aliwang populasyun. Malilyari ing gene flow operates nung e la sumbagal deng geografia (lugal) o kalinangan/kultura.

Ing genetic drift

Pun bulung: Genetic drift

Lalarawa’na ning genetic drift ing pamanaliwa king dalas o frequency ning metung a allele manibat king metung a henerasyun o dai papunta king tutuki uli ning sampling variance. Manaliwa ya ing dalas ning metung a allele kareng supling agpang king probability distribution ning frequency ning allele king dai da reng pengari.

Magdependi la deng dakal a aspetu ning genetic drift king sukad (size) ning populasyun (a keraklan papakuyad da king N). Lalu maulaga iti kareng mangalating mating population (grupu da reng malyaring magparakal o mamalipi), nung nu maragul ing chance fluctuation (o mikatagun a pamanaliwa manibat king metng a henerasyun/dai papunta king tutuki). Malyaring magbunga king pangawala ning allele king populasyun ining pamanaliwa king dalas ning allele king pangalabas da reng tuki-tuking henerasyun.

Ing ulaga da ring natural selection ampong genetic drift kumpara king pangkabilugan magdependi mu naman king sukad ning populasyun ampo king sikan ning selection: alimbawa, nung malati ya ing N times s (population size times strength of selection), ing genetic drift ing mimiral (predominates). Nu namang maragul ya ing N times s, ing selection ing mimiral. Uli na niti, ‘mas matalab’ ya ing natural selection kareng mangaragul a populasyun, samantalang ing genetic drift ing mas masikan kareng mangalating populasyun. Katatawlyan, magdependi king sukad ning metung a populasyun ing kaba ning panaun bayu ya manatili kaniti ing metung a allele (fixation) kapamilata’ning genetic drift (ing buri nang sabyan, bayu la magdala king allele deng balang metung a kayanib ketang populasyun); mas malagwa ing fixation nung malati ya mu ing populasyun.

Pamakibage

Lalu lang mibabage king karelang paligid deng species o uri da reng lelangan kapamilatan ning prosesu ning natural selection. [[Adaptation (biology)|Adaptation]] ing aus king sanumang prosesu ning ebolusyun a makaragdag king pangabage ning balang metung (individual), o neng kayi, ing kauryan (trait) a babye karagdagang pamibage (fitness), alimbawa ing mas masikan a iking agagamit king pamanalan (prehensile tail), o mas malinong panakit (greater visual acuity). Dapat linawan a magdependi ya ing pamibage king kontekstu o paligid (context-sensitive); mapalyaring ing metung a kauryan a makaragdag king pamibage king metung a lugal, makabawas ne man king aliwa.

Maniwala la reng keraklan kareng biologist a malilyari ing adaptation o pamakibage kapamilatan’ning pamitipun kareng dakal a mutation a balang metung kareti malati mu epektu. Nanupata, metung yang prosesung kaliwas o alternatibu king adaptation ing macromutation, nung nukarin metung ya mu dapot maragul yang maragul ing metung a mutation.

Ing pamanalto da reng bayung uri ampo ing pangawala da reti

Ing speciation ing pamaglalang kareng adwa o migit pang uri o species manibat king metung. Myayaliwa la reng kaparalanan nung makananun malyari iti. Malilyari ing place ing allopatric speciation neng mikakawani la lugal deng subpopulation (dake ning pangkabilugan a populasyun) king metung at metung, alimbawa uli ning habitat fragmentation o pamipitna-pitna ning karelang tutuknangan o pamanalis king aliwang lugal (migration). Malilyari naman ing sympatric speciation neng ating laltong bayung uri king pareung lugal. Atyu king pilatan da reng misusumangid a allopatry ampong sympatry ing awsan nang peripatric speciation Ernst Mayr. Ing peripatric speciation ing maulagang (critical) pun o batayan ning teorya ning [[:en:punctuated equilibrium|punctuated equilibrium]].

Ing extinction o pangawala malilyari neng magisan ne ing metung a uri o species (alimbawa, gene pool). Keraklan, tuturing deng pinandit ning pangawala (moment of extinction) itang pangamate ning tawling kayanib o indibidwal ning species. E malagad o katakatakang pamikatagun king geological time — lalto la reng species uli ning speciation, at mawawala la uli ning extinction.

Ing evolutionary biology

Ing evolutionary biology dake ne ning biologia a tungkul king penibatan da at kasalesayan deng species, ampo ing karelang pamanaliwa king pangalabas ning panaun. Anti ya mong meta field ing evolutionary biology uling kayabe la keti deng siyentipiku ibat kareng myayaliwang tradisyunal a dake ning ciencia a maki kaugnayan king taxonomy. Alimbawa, kayabe la keti deng siyentipikung espesyalista kareng partikular a mabibye antimo reng manigaral mammalogy, ornithology, o herpetology, pero gagamitan no reng mabibyeng deti antimong sistema ba lang pakibatan deng pangkabilugan a kutang (general questions) tungkul king evolution.

Mekilala yang pormal a paksa ning pamanigaral ing evolutionary biology kaybat ning makabayung pamisanib king teorya ning evoluton (modern evolutionary synthesis) kanitang dekadang 1930 ampong 1940. Nanupata, e la míka departamentung talagang maki lagyung evolutionary biology deng dakal kareng unibersidad angga kanitang dekadang 1970 ampong 1980.

Ing evolutionary developmental biology

Metung yang bayung dake (subfield) ning evolutionary biology ing evolutionary development biology. Tungkul ya iti kareng gene da reng mabibyeng mikamaganak ampo retang ali. Malyaring yang abalu at tukyan kapanaunan (trace timelines) ing pamanalkus ning metung a uri (species development) kapamilata’ning pamag- eksperimentu nung ikumpara la o piyanti deng pamitukituki da reng nucleotide (nucleotide sequence) ning DNA/RNA. Alimbawa, mamayun o susuporta la reng gene sequence king konklusyon a a deng chimpanzee ing pekamalapit a kamaganak da reng tau, at saka deng arthropod (alimbawa, deng insektu) ampo reng vertebrate (deng maki galugud, alimbawa deng tau) metung la mu pipumpunan.

Ing kasalesayan ning evolutionary thought

Ing 1859 edition ning On the Origin of Species

Kanita pang minuna (ancient times), ati’nang mekaisip king ideya ning biological evolution o evolution da reng mabibye. Kayabe ya kareti i Epicurus, metung a philosopher a Hellenist. Nanupata, e linto ing makabayung teorya angga kanitang kalabingwalu at kalabingsyam a siglu (18th and 19th centuries), kapamilatan da reng siyentipikung kalupa da ri [[Jean- Baptiste Lamarck]] ampo i Charles Darwin. Agyang tatanggapan da ne reng marakal-dakal a siyentipiku ing pamanaliwa da reng species bayu ing 1859, yapin itang pamilimbag ning The Origin of Species ing minyeng masikan at kapani-paniwalang kaparalanan (cogent mechanism) tungkul king pangapalyari ning pamanaliwang bunga ning evolution: ing kayang teorya ning natural selection. Meyagyag yang maglimbag i Darwin king sinulat na anyang kaybat nang tinanggap sulat kang Alfred Russell Wallace, nung nu ne pepabalu ing sarili nang pamanuklas king natural selection. Uli na niti, neng kayi kikilalanan da murin ing inambag nang Wallace king teorya ning evolution.

Agyang ikwa ning teorya nang Darwin a ugunan ing palage da reng siyentipiku tungkul king pamanalkus ning bye (development of life), e na agyung isplika ing panibatan ning pamiyaliwa-liwa kilub ning metung a species, at e makaing makakumbinsi itang pepamunikala nang Darwin a kaparalanan a hereditary, itang pangenesis.

Anyang “metuklas yang pasibayu” ing obra nang Gregor Mendel tungkul king pamagmana kanitang kalabingsyan a siglu, ya ing penibatan ning gulu pilatan da reng Mendelian (I [[Charles Benedict Davenport]]) ampo reng biometrician (di Walter Frank Raphael Weldon ampo i Karl Pearson), a mamilit a e la tutuki king sistema nang Mendel deng keraklan kareng kauryan (trait), at magpalto la reting continuous variation. E miglwat, pikasundu da la at pisanib deting adwang teorya, at utak ing keraklan kaniti king obra ning biologist at statistician a i R.A. Fisher. Meyaus yang makabayung pamisanib ning teorya ning evoluton (modern evolutionary synthesis) kanitang dekada 1930 ampong 1940 ining pamisanib a iti, nung nu gemitanan deng rigorous a statistical model kareng teorya nang Mendel tungkul king pamagmana, king kapamilatan da reng gene.

Kaybat ning eksperimentu nang Griffith kanitang 1940, pepatunayan de ri Griffith's experiment, [[:en:Oswald Avery|Avery]], McCleod at McCarty a ing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ing “transforming principle” a magdala king genetic information (impormasyon tungkul king magi rang itsura deng supling). Ketang en:1953, pepalimbag de ri Francis Crick ampo i James Watson ing sikat dang artikulu tungkul king pangabalangkas ning DNA, a makabasi king pamanyaliksik nang [[:en:Rosalind Franklin|Rosalind Franklin]] ampo I Maurice Wilkins. Dening pamikatagun a reti ing migumpisa king panaun ning [[:en:molecular biology|molecular biology]], at pepabayu de ing panintindi tamu king evolution antimong prosesung molecular: ing mutation da rang dake ning DNA (lon ya ing molecular evolution.

Tanda ne ning pamidayu king teorya ning group selection papunta ketang makabayung paglalawe king gene antimong unit of selection ing sinulat nang George C. Williams a Adaptation and natural selection: A Critique of some Current Evolutionary Thought kanitang 1966.

Kanitang kalibudtan ning dekada 1970, pepamunikala neng Motoo Kimura ing [[:en:neutral theory of molecular evolution|neutral theory of molecular evolution]], at

Taglus-taglus pa murin ing dibati king pamanigaral a iti. Metung ya kareng pekamaulagang publikung dibati itang tungkul king teorya ning [[:en:punctuated equilibrium|punctuated equilibrium]], a pepamunikala da reng paleontologist a i Niles Eldredge ampo i Stephen Jay Gould kanitang 1972 ba yang isplika o ustan ing kakulangan da reng fossil a transitional o atyu king pilatan da reng myayaliwang phylum.

Deng pikwanan

means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray, Albemarle Street. 502 pages. Reprinted: Gramercy (May 22, 1995). ISBN 0517123207

  • Zimmer, Carl. Evolution: The Triumph of an Idea. Perennial (October 1,

2002). ISBN 0060958502

  • Larson, Edward J. Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory

(Modern Library Chronicles). Modern Library (May 4, 2004). ISBN 0679642889

  • Mayr, Ernst. What Evolution Is. Basic Books (October, 2002). ISBN

0465044263

  • Gigerenzer, Gerd, et al., The empire of chance: how probability changed

science and everyday life (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

  • Williams, G.C. (1966). Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of some

Current Evolutionary Thought. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Evo Devo and the Making of the Animal Kingdom, W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393060160

Lon la murin deti

             

Social implications of the theory of evolution

Creation-evolution controversy

Suglung a palwal

Resources]

  • EvoWiki — A wiki whose goal is to

promote general evolution education, and provide mainstream scientific responses to the arguments of antievolutionists.

selection/introduction.htm Evolution by Natural Selection] — An introduction to the logic of the theory of evolution by natural selection

PBS.

Journal of Organic Evolution]

How Evolution Works]

Evolution News from Genome News Network (GNN)]

About Evolution and the Nature of Science]

beginners]

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