Archaea

Ibat king Wikipedia
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Archaea
Fossil range: Archean - Recent
Deng Halobacteria sp. strain NRC-1, a 5 μm king kaba.
Deng Halobacteria sp. strain NRC-1, a 5 μm king kaba.
Scientific classification
Sakup: Archaea
Woese, Kandler & Wheelis, 1990
Phyla

Crenarchaeota
Euryarchaeota
Korarchaeota
Nanoarchaeota
ARMAN

Metung lang maragul a dake da reng organismung mabibye deng Archaea (a awsan da muring Archaebacteria). E man makaing malino ing eksaktu rang penibatan (w:phylogeny) deng grupung deti, deng Archaea, Eukaryotes at Bacteria ing manimunang pamipitna-pitna da reng mabibye king awsan dang w:three-domain system. Kalupa da reng bacteria, tunggal la cell deng archaea, at ala lang mucleus, anya iyabe ra la kareng prokaryote antimong Monera king taxonomy a maki limang kingdom. Minuna lang meyakit kareng kapaligiran a extreme, dapot manibat kanita, abalu rang mabibye la pala kareng myayaliwang klima at paligid.

Kasalesayan[mag-edit | edit source]

Kinilala nong Carl Woese deng Archaea kanitang 1977 agpang king karelang pamikawani kareng aliwang prokaryote kareng w:phylogenetic tree a 16S rRNA. Anyang purmeru, Archaebacteria at Eubacteria ing dareti, at tuturing da lang kingdom o subkingdom. Ing pamangaintuliran nang Woese, aliwa lang aliwang sanga da reng mabibye deng adwang deti. Kaybat, pemalagyuan na lang Archaea at Bacteria bang ipalto it, at sinabi nang dapat lang dapat lang bumilug deti kareng three domains da reng mabibye.

Deng Archaea, Bacteria ampong Eukaryotes[mag-edit | edit source]

Kalupa do reng archea deng aliwang prokaryote karing keraklan kareng aspetu ning pamibalangkas ning w:cell ampo king w:metabolism. Nanupata, karas king genetic transcription at translation — deng adwang prosesu nung nu makabasi ing w:molecular biology — ala lu reting katangyan nung nu la makikilala deng bacteria, nun e kalupa rong kalupa deng eukaryote karas keti. Alimbawa, anti la karetang kareng eukaryote deng initiation ampong elongation factor a magagamit king translation da reng archaean, kabang itang karelang transcription, gagamit yang TATA-binding proteins (protinang tataid king DNA sequence o pamituglung-tuglung a “TATA”) at TFIIB anti kareng eukaryote.

Atin pang aliwang katangyan a mangawani kareng Archaea. E anti kareng keraklan kareng bacteria, tunggal la mu w:cell membrane a alang peptidoglycan wall. Karagdagan pa kaniti, pareu lang ating membrane a gawa king glycerol- ester lipid deng eukaryote ampong reng bacteria, kabang glycerol- ether lipid no man deng kareng archaea. Mapalyaring pamakibage da reng archaea iti king hyperthermophily o paligid a mapaling tutu. Metung pa, aliwa yang aliwa king sangkap at pamanalkus (develoopment) ing flagellum o tela-latigu da reng archaea nung pakiyanti (ikumpara) ya iti ketang kareng bacteria (agyang balamu milulupa la reti king mumunang lawe).

Metung a phylogenetic tree a basi king impormasyun ibat king rRNA, a magpalto king pamikawani da lahi deng bacteria, archaea, at eukaryote.

Tuknangan[mag-edit | edit source]

Dakal la reng w:extremophile kareng archaean. Deng aliwa kareti, karen lang misnang katas a temperatura, a keraklan maygit king 100 °C, antimo kareng w:geyser ampong w:black smoker. Den namang aliwa, mayayakit la kareng lugal a asna namang karimla o king danum a misnang kalat, asidu, o alkaline (anting lihiya). Nanupata, mesophile no man deng aliwang archaea, at mayayakit la reti kareng kapaligiran a yanti kareng w:marshland, w:sewage, at gabun. Dakal a archaea a methanogen (gagawang methane]] a mayayakit king daralanan ning pamangan da reng animal antimo reng w:ruminant, ane at tau. Keraklan, e la makaperwisyu kareng aliwang mabibye, at agpang king balu tamu, alang magdalang sakit kareti.

Itsura[mag-edit | edit source]

Manibat king 0.1 angga king maygit 15 μm ing lapad ning balang metung a archaean. Deng aliwa kareti, pakasapunggul la o tuglung-tuglung a balamu tali, at miraras la reti king anggang 200 μm king kaba. Myayaliwa la alkus (shape) deti – mabilug, anting tukud, balikungkung, anting balugbug, o rektangulo. Myayaliwa la murin paralan metabolismu o pamamangan at pamaglaso pamangan at prosesu king katawan. Alimbawa, gagamit lang sala deng halobacteria (bacteria a mabibye king malat) bang gawang ATP, dapot alang Archaea a magpagana king photosynthesis kapamilatan ning electron transport chain, anti ing malilyari kareng aliwang grupu.

Ebolusyon ampong pamipitna-pitna[mag-edit | edit source]

Mapipitna la reng archaea kareng adwang mangaragul a grupu basi kareng rRNA tree (pamisanga-sanga agpang king rRNA), deng Euryarchaeota ampong Crenarchaeota. Bukud kareti, atin pang adwang grupu melalang para kareng mapilan a mekwa kareng espesyal a paligid, ampo itang alang kalupang species a Nanoarchaeum equitans, a atuklasan nang by Karl Stetter kanitang 2002, dapot e malino ing karelang kaugnayan kareng aliwang archaea.

Agpang kang Woese, balang metung kareng atlung grupu – ding bacteria, archaea, at eukaryotes – metung yang metung yang manimuna at makayaliwang lahi dareng mabibye, a maranun kinawani ketang pipumpunan a w:progenote a e pa makaing makabayu o masalese (poorly developed kaparalanan ning pamiparakal (genetic machinery). Mababakas ya ing palageng iti ketang lagyung Archaea, a ibat king amanung Griegung archae o misnang katwa.

Metung ya pa muring maragul a prublema ing pamiugne ning Archaea ampo ning Eukarya. Bukud kareng pamilupang mebanggit na king babo, miyayabe la reng adwa kareng aliwang genetic tree. Agpang kareng mapilan, mas malapit la reng eukaryote king Eurarchaeota kesa king Crenarchaeota, agyang aliwa ing sasabyan ning membrane chemistry. Nanupata, maging masakit ing pamanigaral king karelang pamiugnayan uling king pangatuklas da reng gene a balamu karetang kareng archaea kareng mapilan a bacteria, antimo ing Thermotoga. Ating sasabing mapalyaring linto la reng eukaryote kapamilatan ning pamisanib (fusion) ning metung a archaean ampo ning metung a eubacterium, a meging nucleus ampong cytoplasm, a yang penibatan dareng pamilupa-lupa king gene da reti. Nanupata, mikaka prublema king teorya iti karas king pamipalino king pamibalangkas ning cell.

Manibat king w:sequencing da reng tunggal tunggal a gene, para king w:systematics, miras na king sequencing ning kabilugan ning w:genome. King salukuyan, adwa nong pulu’t apat (24) a uri da reng archaea deng me-sequence, at adwa lang pulu’t adwa la reng e pa kumpletu [1].

Suglung a palwal[mag-edit | edit source]

Archaea]

Archaea, ecology, systematics and morphology]

antimicrobials, Dr Sarah Maloney] Citat: "...Ground breaking research on extremophiles continues to this day, with the recently discovered 22nd genetically encoded amino acidpyrrolysine – from the archaeon, Methanosarcina barkeri, (Hao et al., 2002; Srinivasan et al., 2002)...."

Toughest bug reveals genetic secrets] Citat: "...It [Pyrococcus abyssi] likes conditions that the vast majority of other organisms would find impossible to live in. It thrives best at temperatures of about 103 degrees [Celsius] and under pressures of about 200 atmospheres...."

Pikwanan[mag-edit | edit source]