Evolution

Ibat king Wikipedia
Lundag ka king: pamaglibut, paintunan
I Charles Darwin, ing igpa ning teorya ning ebolusyon kapamilata’ning natural selection.


King biologia, ing ebolusyon ing prosesu nung nukarin manikwa lang kauryan (trait) deng populasyon da reng mabibye at pámana do reti kareng tutuking henerasyun o dai. I Jean-Baptiste Lamarck ing migmunikala (proposed) king metung kareng mumunang teorya ning ebolusyon anyang umpisa ning [[:en:19th century|kalabingsyam a siglu]] (19th century). Inukul (speculate) nang deng tunggal-tunggal a organismu o lelangan (individual organisms) manikwa lang kauryan kabang mabye la, at pamana do reti kareng supling da. Agyang mipatunayan neng e tutu ing teoryang iti, miyapag ing pekamaulagang dake ning makabayung teorya ketang artikulung dang adwang Charles Darwin ampong Alfred Russell Wallace (1858), ampo ketang libru nang Darwin a [[:en:The Origin of Species|The Origin of the Species]] (1859).

Agpang king teorya ning evolution kapamilatan ning [[:en:natural selection|natural selection]] a pepamunikala da ri Darwin at Wallace, malilyari ing evolution uling lalaganap ya ing metung a kauryan a makaragdag king pamikatagun (chance) a magparakal ya ing metung a mabibye, kapamilata’ning pamagmana, kareng tutuking dai o henerasyun. Makanyan murin, lumagad ya ing metung a kauryan a makabawas king pamikatagun a magparakal ya ing metung a mabibye. Kanitang dekadang [[en:1930s|1930], menigobra la reng siyentipiku ba reng piyabe ing metuklas pasibayung teorya ning puli – a pepamunikala nang Mendel – ampo ing natural selection nang Darwin, at milalang ya ing [[:en:modern evolutionary synthesis|makabayung pamisanib ning teoryang ebolusyon]] , a metung kareng pekamaulagang (fundamental) teorya ning ciencia ning makabayung biologia. King makabayung pamisanib a iti, ing “ebolusyon” mangabaldugan yang pamanaliwa king pangalaganap (frequency) ning metung a allele kilub ning metung a gene pool kareng tuki-tuking henerasyun o dai. Myayaliwa la reng kaparalanan a lunto ing pamanaliwang iti: natural selection, [[:en:genetic drift|genetic drift]] o pamanaliwa king (gene flow) ning balangkas ning populasyun (population structure gene flow).

Teorya king ciencia[mag-edit | edit source]

Atlu la reng manimuna nang aspetu ning teoryang nung nu ya makabasi ing makabayung pamisanib

  1. Menibat la king metung mung pipumpunan deng eganaganang

mabibye.

  1. Ing pamanalto da reng bayung kauryan (trait) king metung a lineage o lahi.
  2. Ing kaparalanan (mechanism) nung bakit manatili la reng aliwang kauryan kabang mawawala no man detang aliwa.

Metung yang teorya ning ciencia ing makabayung pamisanib, kalupa da retang penibatan nang teoryang ibat kang Mendel ampong Darwin. Ing metung a teorya ning ciencia, anti neng salamin ning yatu (o metung a dake na niti). Manibat kaniti, malyaring gawang hypothesis a malyaring pabulanan o patutwan kapamilatan ning empirical observation. Nung paglalaweng anti kaniti, e la misasalungat ding katayang “teorya” (theory) ampong “katutwan” (fact), nun e anti mong mipaglibe o mipanablas (reciprocal) ing pamiugnayan da reti — alimbawa, metung a “katutwan” a matulid yang mabaldug papunta king libutad ning yatu ing metung a mansanas a nikbag ra king gabun, at ing “teorya” a mag-isplika kaniti, yapin ing salukuyan a teorya ning gravitation. Ing bayung pamisanib ing peka[[predictive power|masikan]] a teoryang mag-isplika king pamiyaliwa-liwa da reng mabibye ampong pamanalto da reng bayung uri da reng mabibye, at kilub ning ciencia ning biologia, lubusan na nong ayalilan deng minunang pamag-isplika king penibatan da reng uri da reng mabibye.

Ing penibatan (ancestry) da reng mabibye[mag-edit | edit source]

Pre-Cambrian Deng stromatolite king Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. Kanitang 2002, milimbag yang kontrobersyal a artikulu i William Schopf ning UCLA king peryodikung Nature nung nu na sasabyang maki idad nong 3.5 bilyung banwa katwa deng formations a anti kaniti Deng fossil a mikrobyung lumut. [1] Nung tutu iti, ila ing mumunang diling balu tamung lelangan king yatu.
Phylogenetic tree]] da reng eganaganang mabibye, a basi kareng datos a ibat king pamanyuri king rRNA gene. Papakit na ing pamikawani da reng atlung domains, deng bacteria, archaea, ampong eukaryotes agpang king pamaglarawan nang Carl Woese. Keraklan, kawangis no murin deng phylogenetic tree a migulis kapamilatan da reng aliwang genes, oneng malyaring aliwa lang lunto deng minunang grupung minyanga, mapalyaring uli king malagwang pamanaliwa (rapid evolution) ning tRNA. Ala pang pamikasundu nung nanu ing eksaktung rang relasyun o pamisuglungan.
Pepakit ning genetic testing a milulupa ing keraklan king DNA da reng tau ampong chimpanzee. King metung a pamanigaral kareng syam a pulung libung (90,000) base pair, abalu nang Morris Goodman ning Wayne State University a pareu ing 99.4% ning DNA da reng tau ampo reng chimpanzee.[2] [3].

ning NASA ketang kilalang eksperimentung Miller-Urey. Kanitang 1953, piyaben-abayan do ri Stanley Miller ampong Harold Urey deng sangkap a panibatan ning bye (chemical precursors to life) king metung a lulanan a selyadu, at kine ro king kabilyan a kalupa ning anti king yatu kanitang minuna.]]

Para kareng karagdagang detalye tungkul king this topic, lon ya ing Common descent.

Malyaring masabing metung ya penibatan ing metung a grupu da reng mabibye nung para-pareu la pipumpunan. Sasabyan ning theory of universal common descent ning biologia a ibat la king metung a pipumpunan o metung a gene pool kanitang minuna deng eganaganang mabibye king yatu.

Patune lang metung la mu penibatan deng eganaganang mabibye detang kauryan (traits) a atyu kareng eganagana kareti. Kanitang panaun nang Darwin, makabasi mu king pamagumasid kareng pamilupa ning [[:en:morphology (biology)|pangabalangkas]] da reng mabibye, antimo itang deng ayup — agyang e la makasulapo — atin lang pakpak. Ngeni, mika masikan a pamipatune para king ebolusyon ibat king ciencia ning DNA genetics. Alimbawa, gagamit yang nucelic acid antimong genetic material (itang sangkap a magdala kareng kauryan anti ing itsura o kule tamu kareng tutuking henerasyun o dai). Deta muring adwang pulung [[:en:amino acid|amino acid]] ing gagamitan dang building block da reng protina. Metung ya mung genetic code ing genetic code a gagamitan da reng eganaganang mabibye (bukud mu kareng mangalagad a alimbawa) ba rong ilikas deng pamituki-tuki da reng nucleic acid papunta kareng protina. Uling antimong mikatagun ing pamamili kareng kauryan a reti, mapalyaring tanda ne ning metung la mu penibatan deng eganaganang mabibye itang pangkabilugan lang mayayakit deti.

abiogenesis — ing pamaglalang king bye manibat king sangkap a e mabye — a mangabaldugang misnang lagad ing pamaglalang ning bye ibat king kayalang-bye, o malilyari mu iti lalam da reng kabilyan a aliwang- aliwang kareng atyu king yatu tamu ngeni. Anti na mong sasabyan ning eksperimentung Miller-Urey a malilyari ing abiogenesis lalam ning kabilyan kanitang minunang panaun king yatu.

Uling misna yang lambat ing prosesu ning ebolusyun, kaylangan a matwa neng tutu ing yatu bang lunto ing e mu nanung pamiyaliwa-liwa at panga-komplikadu ning bye ngening panaun tamu; mapalyaring bilyun-bilyun neng banwa katwa. Makabage iti king katibayan ibat king geologia a migit-kumulang [[:en:Age of the earth|4.6 neng bilyung banwa]]. Lon ya ing [[:en:Timeline of evolution|Timeline of evolution]].)

Kayabe king balu tamu tungkul king ebolusyun itang datos ibat kareng larangan ning geologia ampong planetary science. Babye lang impormasyun tungkul king kasalesayan ning Yatu ampo reng pamanaliwang bunga ning bye. Dakal king impormasyun tungkul king Yatu kanitang minuna ing mewala uling kareng geological processes king pangalabas ning panaun.

Deng katibayan para king ebolusyun[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing katibayan ibat king pangabalangkas da reng mabibye[mag-edit | edit source]

Maulaga la reng fossil neng tatantyan tamu nung kapilan la linto reng myayaliwang lahi. Uling e karaniwang malilyari ing fossilization, a mangaylangang mangasyás a parti (antimo ing butul) at ing pangamate lele ning metung a lugal nung nukarin mititipun ing banlik, e kumpletu at malagad ing impormasyun a bibye na niti tungkul king ebolusyun ning bye. Malagad mu ing katibayan para kareng sadyang mabibyeng alang mangasyas a dake antimo reng kapsa, talukab, butul ampong ipan, pero ating ditak kaniti, alimbawa itang kareng microfossil o mangalatiktik a fossil ibat kanitang minuna pang panaun, ampo ing pamagi rang fossil deng kilkulan da reng minunang animal (ancient burrows) ampo reng ditak a mabibye kanitang mangalambut katawan.

Nanupata, ating katibayan tungkul kareng mabibye kanitang minunang panaun kareng fossil a mayayakit king mabilug a Yatu. Keraklan, malyari yang ulan ing katwa da reng fossil king kabilyan da at kauryan deng batu (geologic context) nung nu la meyakit; at ita mismung idad da malyari yang makwa kapamilata’ning radiometric dating. Kawangis do reng aliwang fossil deng mabibye ngeni, samantalang atin namang aliwang-aliwa. Gagamitan do reng fossil ba rang abalu nung kapilan ya linto ing metung a lahi, at gagamitan do reng transitional fossil ba rang ipakit ing pamisuglung o pamiugnayan da reng adwang lahi. Panigaralan da reng paleontologist ing ebolusyun, keraklan king kapamilatan ning pamanyuri kareng fossil.

Agpang king phylogeny o pamanigaral kareng species (uri da reng mabibye), malyari lang mika myayaliwang gamit deng dake ning katawan a milulupa pangabalangkas (similar internal organization). Malyaring mika vestigial organ a ditak o alang silbi king metung a mabibye, agyang malino ing kayang gamit kareng aliwa. Alimbawa la kareti deng wisdom teeth ampong appendix da reng tau.

Katibayan ibat king genetic sequence[mag-edit | edit source]

Papakit ning metung a pamiyanti da reng genetic sequence da reng mabibye a mas milulupa la sequence deng mabibyeng mikanlapit basi king phylogeny kesa karetang mikandayu. Alimbawa, manga 1.2% ing pamiyaliwa (basi king substitution) ning neutral DNA sequence da reng tau kareng pekamalapit dang kamaganak, deng chimpanzee, 1.6% kareng gorilla [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstr act&list_uids=11170892], at 6.6% kareng baboon[4]. Mituturing yang masikan (robust enough) a panyukad ing sequence comparison a malyari yang gamitan ba lang samasan deng pamagkamali king phylogenetic tree nung kulang la reng aliwang katibayan.

Atin pang karagdagang katibayan para king metung mung penibatan da reng mabibye ibat kareng genetic detritus (detang “basurang” gene) atni reng pseudogene, o rehiyon ning DNA a orthologous king metung a gene king aliwang klasing mabibye, dapot e no magagamit at anti lang taglus- taglus a mimina at mababawas (degeneration) [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstr act&list_uids=10833048].

Uling e la maglakwan fossil deng prosesung metaboliku, mararapat ing pamanyaliksik kareng pekamaulagang kaparalanan da reng cell kapamilatan ning pamiyanti (comparison) kareng lelangan a mabibye ngeni. Uling myayaliwa lang panaun mikawa-kawani deng lahi, malyari tamung abalu nung kapilan ya linto ing metung a prosesung metaboliku nung piyanti (o ikumpara) ta la reng kauryan da reng paliping (descendant) ibat king metung a pipumpunan (common ancestor).

Ing penibatan ning bye[mag-edit | edit source]

Pun bulung: Origin of life

Ditak mu ing balu tamu tungkul king pamagumpisa ning bye. Nanupata, atin lang pamilupa king kauryan deng eganaganang mabibye ngeni, kayabe no reng pamibalangkas ning cell (cellular structure) ampo ing genetic code. Para kareng keraklan kareng siyentipiko, mangabaldugan iting metung la mu pipumpunan deng eganaganang mabibye ngeni, at atyu no king pipumpunan a ita deng pekamaulagang prosesu ning cell. Nanupata, ala lang pamikasundu deng siyentipiku king pamisuglung-suglung da reng atlung domain ning bye, deng (Archea, Bacteria, at Eukaryota), o ing penibatan ning bye. Keraklan, makatutuk king pamangimut (behavior) da reng macromolecule, lalu na ing RNA, ampo kareng komplikadung sistema, deng tangkang manigaral king mumuna nang kasalesayan ning bye.

Ing kasalesayan ning bye[mag-edit | edit source]

Agyang e malino ing penibatan ning bye, balu ta lang mayap deng aliwang maulagang milyari king kasalesayan ning bye. Malyari ta yang tukyan ing pamanalto ning photosynthesis a gagamit king oxygen (manga atlung bilyung banwa na ing milabas) ampo ing pamaniral ning atmosperang dakal oxygen (lipat ning “reducing” a atmospera) kapamilatan ning pamanalkus (formation) da reng depositu ning banded iron, at kaybat deng mangalutung sapin a gawa king iron oxide. Kaylangang dumalan king anti kaniti bayu mika [[:en:aerobic respiration|aerobic]] en:cellular respiration, a paniwalan dang linto adwang bilyung banwa na ing milabas. Ketang milabasan a metung a bilyung banwa, linto la kareng kadayatan deng simpling tanaman at animal a multicellular (gawa king dakal a cell). E miglwat kaybat ning pamanalto da reng minunang animal, milyari ing Cambrian explosion (metung a panaun ning alang kapante at makapagmulala, dapot saguli mung, pamanalto da reng asnang karakal a uri da reng mabibye a mitatak kareng fossil ning [[:en:Burgess shale|Burgess shale]]), nung kapilan la milalang deng eganaganang balangkas ning katawan, o phylum, da reng mabibye ngeni; paniwalan dang ing pamanalto ning Box gene ing megi nang sangkan ning pamikatagung iti. Manga limang dalan a milyun (500 million) a banwa ing milabas, sekupan de reng tanaman ampong fungi ing gabun, at e miglwat, tikyan do reng en:arthropod ampo reng aliwang aniamal. Ini ing pigmulan ning pamanalkus (development) ning ecosystem king gabun a balu tamu ngeni.

Ing pamanalto da reng bayung kauryan[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing mutation[mag-edit | edit source]

Pun bulung: Mutation

E na balung Darwin ing panibatan da ning pamanaliwa (variations) kareng indibidwal a mabibye, pero apansinan nang balamu mikatagun mu iti. Kalabas ning panaun, ing mutation ing tiru rang sangkan king keraklan kareti. Deng mutation, permanenti lang pamanaliwa king genetic material (keraklan ing DNA o RNA ning metung a [[:en:cell (biology)|cell]]. Malyari lang manibat king pamagkamali king pamangopya (copying error) king genetic material neng mararapat ing [[:en:cell division|cell division]], ampo king “pangabilad” king radiation, at kareng chemical, kareng [[:en:virus (biology)|virus]], o malyaring sasaryan a lunto lalam ning pamanibala ning cell neng meiosis o hypermutation. Kareng lelangan a multicellular, malyari lang uryan deng mutation kareng germline mutation, a malyaring mipamana kareng supling, ampo reng somatic mutation, a (nung e la sasaryan) keraklan mumuli king pangasira na palakad o pangamate ning cell, at malyari nang panibatan ning kanser.

Mágsilbi lang magdalang pamanaliwa kareng gene (genetic variation) deng mutation, a malyari nang impluwensyan ning natural selection (o mapalyaring ali; lon ya ing Neutral mutations). Ala lang epektu king tsansa o pamikatagun nang kumabye ning lelangan king kayang paligid deng neutral mutations, at malyari lang mitipun deti king pangalabas ning panaun.

Ing pamanatili da reng kauryan (traits)[mag-edit | edit source]

Deng kaparalanan ning pamagmana (Mechanisms of inheritance)[mag-edit | edit source]

Kanitang panaun nang Darwin, e la mikakasundu reng siyentipiku nung makananu lang amamana deng kauryan. Ngeni, yugne ta la reng kauryan a amamana (inherited traits) kareng makakawani (discrete) at lulwat (persistent) a bageng awsan dang gene, tuglung-tuglung kareng tela-gulis (linear) a molecule a awsan dang DNA. Lipat ning keraklan eksaktu ing pamamgopya kaniti, atin yang pamiyaliwa ing DNA ning balang metung a mabibye, at dadalan ya king prosesu ning pamanaliwa o mutation a ma-isplika king lalam.

Nanupata, atin muring paralan ning pamagmana ning pamiyaliwang e makabasi king DNA. E miyayapektwan ing impormasyun kareng gene kareting prosesung deti, at keraklan, malyari lang ibalik king sadya (reversible). [[:en:epigenetic inheritance|Epigenetic inheritance]] ing aus kareti, nung nu la kayabe deng alimbawang anti ing DNA methylation, prion, ampong [[structural inheritance| structural inheritance]]. Taglus-taglus pa murin ing pamanyaliksik nung malyari kareti ing “specific heritable variation” antimong ablas kareng sinyal ibat king paligid. Nung ini pin ing mararapat, mapalyaring ating mapilang alimbawa ning ebolusyon a e na sakup ning karaniwan a balu tamung balangkas ning teorya nang Darwin, a lilisya king pamiugne kareng sinyal ibat king paligid ketang pamipalyari ning pamiyaliwang amamana (production of heritable variation).

Ating mapilan a sangkan a mamapektu king frequency da reng allele a atyu na. Uli da reng sangkan a reti, malyari lang mas marlas lunto deng mapilan a kauryan, kabang mabawas no man o taglus-taglus nong mawala detang aliwa. Atlu la reng balu tamung prosesung mamapektu king pamanatili ning metung a kauryan; o, bang lalung partikular, ing frequency na ning allele:

Ing natural selection[mag-edit | edit source]

Pun bulung: Natural selection

Ing natural selection ing pangabye (survive) pamiparakal uling king kapaligiran. Ing differential mortality ing kaugnayan ning dalas ning pangabye da reng lelangan king karelang idad a malyari nong mikasupling (reproductive age) Ing differential fertility ing pangkabilugan a ambag a amamana (total genetic contribution) king tutuking dai o henerasyun. Uli ning pekamaulaga nang papil (central role) ning natural selection king teorya ning ebolusyon, mika maragul a pamisuglung king larangan a ita ampo ing pamanigaral king ecologia.

Malyari yang pitnan ing natural selection kareng adwang kategorya:

miraragdagan la reng gene da reng lelangan a mabibye at darakal kumpara karetang e ra ikwang kinabye .

la ambag king gene pool deng lelangan a mas abuburi da reng kasumangid a kasarian (opposite sex) uling king karelang itsura o kauryan, at uli na niti, mas masikan lang dakal.

Kikimut ya murin ing natural selection king myayaliwang paralan:

selection|background selection]] lalako no reng mutation a makasira king populasyon.

frequency ning metung a mutation a makasaup.

pamiyaliwa (variation) kilub ning metung a populasyon, kapamilatan ning mapilan a kaparalanan (mechanism), alimbawa:

advantage|heterozygote advantage]], nung nu ing heterozygote mas masikan ya o bage (fit) kesa king sanuman kareng anyung puru (homozygous forms) (alimbawa king [[:en:sickle cell anemia|sickle cell anemia]] kareng tau a babye resistensya king malaria)

nu mas matas la “fitness” o pangabage deng uring malagad mu (rare variants).

uryan a karaniwan king populasyun, anya mibabawasan ing pamiyaliwa at manatili ya ing mean o kasantingan

metung a sepu o sikoti ning metung a uryan; uli na niti, dudusug ya ing mean o kasantingan papunta ketang sepung ita.

misusumangid o mingatbang sikoti, at magbunga king bimodal distribution ning gene frequency. Malyari yang malis o malyari yang ali ing mean o kasantingan.

neutral mutations ing aus da kareng mutation a e na tatalaban ning natural selection. Bukud mung ing genetic drift ampong gene flow ing mamapektu king karelang dalas o frequency king populasyun. Paniwalan dang nung alang selection, ala lang patugut miraragdagan deng neutral mutation. Agpang king probable mutation effect, siran de reng mitipun-tipun a mutation ing gene a e miyayapektwan king selection o pamamili. Aspetu ne ning genome degradation iti.

antimong animal a maki kalinangan o kultura, agyu rang mabyasa [symbolic (extrasomatic) learning], at uli na niti, agyu reng alilan ing karelang paligid, o ing paligid ning sanumang aliwang uri ning lelangan, at iti panibatan da reng bayung selective forces o sangkan a mamapektu king pamamili.

Ing gene flow[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing gene flow (o gene admixture o pamisamut da reng gene) ing bukud o magdilidiling kaparalanan o mechanism nung nukarin malyari lang mikanlapit (king aspetung genetic o king puli/pamamuli) deng populasyun kabang daragul ya la reng gene pool. Ing gene flow ing magbunga nung malis ya ing metung a populasyun da reng lelangan king lugal nung nukarin atin nang sadyang makatuknang a aliwang populasyun. Malilyari ing gene flow operates nung e la sumbagal deng geografia (lugal) o kalinangan/kultura.

Ing genetic drift[mag-edit | edit source]

Pun bulung: Genetic drift


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