Pale

Ibat king Wikipedia
Lundag ka king: pamaglibut, paintunan
Pale
Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
Scientific classification
Kaarian: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Pinduan: Liliopsida
Orden: Poales
Familia: Poaceae
Genus: Oryza
Species
  • Oryza glaberrima
  • Oryza sativa
Ing pamananaman a pale maobra ya
Deng paleng paddies king Yunnan Lalawigan, mauling Tsina.

Ing Pale rice keng English, adua yang species king Poaceae ("tutung dikut") a familia, Oryza sativa at Oryza glaberrima. Dening tanaman katutubu la keng tropical at subtropical king mauli at maulingaslagang Asia at king Africa. Ing pale mamye yang maiggit ikalimang dake ning caloring a apapangan ning tau king kayang pamamamgan.[1] (Ing katayang "pale lampung" daleraya ya kareng lampung nang species ning Oryza, dapot daleraya ya kareng species ning mikiugnayan a genus Zizania, karing aduang lampung ampong sese.) Ing pale monocarpic banu-banuang tanaman, dragul mga 1–1.8 m a katas, agpang keng klasi at ning gabun a kataba. Ing dikut at yang makabang, payat a bulung 50–100 cm kaba at 2–2.5 cm lapad. Ing malating wind-pollinated bulaklak magagawa la king malaarkung pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm a kaba. Ing butul metung yang butil (caryopsis) 5–12 mm kaba at 2–3 mm kapal.


Meto Yatung Papalual at Kalakal

Deng pekatamas a Apaplual a Pale - 2005
(milyun metric tonelada)
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Tsina 185
Flag of India.svg India 129
Template:IDN 54
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Banglades 40
Template:VNM 36
Template:THA 27
Template:MMR 25
Template:PAK 18
Flag of the Philippines.svg Filipinas 15
Flag of Brazil.svg Brasil 13
Flag of Japan.svg 11
World Total 700
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
[1]





Lawen ya rin

American makabang butil a pale
Japon makuyad a butil a pale


Dalerayan

  • Cohen, J. E., K. Schoenly, K. L. Heong, H. Justo, G. Arida, A. T. Barrion, J. A. Litsinger. 1994. A Food Web Approach to Evaluating the Effect of Insecticide Spraying on Insect Pest Population Dynamics in a Philippine Irrigated Rice Ecosystem. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 747-763. doi:10.2307/2404165
  • Crawford, G.W. and C. Shen. 1998. The Origins of Rice Agriculture: Recent Progress in East Asia. Antiquity 72:858-866.
  • Crawford, G.W. and G.-A. Lee. 2003. Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula. Antiquity 77(295):87-95.
  • Douangboupha, B., K. Khamphoukeo, S. Inthavong, J. Schiller, and G. Jahn. 2006. Pests and diseases of the rice production systems of Laos. Pp. 265-281. In J.M. Schiller, M.B. Chanphengxay, B. Linquist, and S. Appa Rao, editors. Rice in Laos. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 457 p. ISBN 978-971-22-0211-7.
  • Heong, KL, YH Chen, DE Johnson, GC Jahn, M Hossain, RS Hamilton. 2005. Debate Over a GM Rice Trial in China. Letters. Science, Vol 310, Issue 5746, 231-233 , 14 October 2005.
  • Huang, J., Ruifa Hu, Scott Rozelle, Carl Pray. 2005. Insect-Resistant GM Rice in Farmers' Fields: Assessing Productivity and Health Effects in China. Science (29 April 2005) Vol. 308. no. 5722, pp. 688 – 690. DOI: 10.1126/science.1108972
  • Jahn, G. C. 1992. Rice pest control and effects on predators in Thailand. Insecticide & Acaricide Tests 17:252-253.
  • Jahn, GC and B. Khiev. 2004. Gall midge in Cambodian lowland rice. pp. 71-76. In J. Benett, JS Bentur, IC Pasula, K. Krishnaiah, [eds]. New approaches to gall midge resistance in rice. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute and Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 195 p.
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev and C. Pol 2000. Ecological characterization of biotic constraints to rice in Cambodia. International Rice Research Notes (IRRN) 25 (3): 23-24.
  • Jahn, GC, B. Khiev, C. Pol, N. Chhorn, S. Pheng, and V. Preap. 2001. Developing sustainable pest management for rice in Cambodia. pp. 243-258, In S. Suthipradit, C. Kuntha, S. Lorlowhakarn, and J. Rakngan [eds.] “Sustainable Agriculture: Possibility and Direction” Proceedings of the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Sustainable Agriculture 18-20 October 1999, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Bangkok (Thailand): National Science and Technology Development Agency. 386 p.
  • Jahn, GC, NQ Kamal, S Rokeya, AK Azad, NI Dulu, JB Orsini, A Barrion, and L Almazan. 2004a. Completion Report on Livelihood Improvement Through Ecology (LITE), PETRRA IPM Subproject SP 27 02. Poverty Elimination Through Rice Research Assistance (PETRRA), IRRI, Dhaka. 20 pages text plus 20 pages appendices. [2]
  • Jahn, GC, I. Domingo, L. P. Almazan and J. Pacia. 2004b. Effect of rice bugs (Alydidae: Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius)) on rice yield, grain quality, and seed viability. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(6): 1923-1927.
  • Jahn, GC, LP Almazan, and J Pacia. 2005. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the intrinsic rate of increase of the rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rice (Oryza sativa L.). Environmental Entomology 34 (4): 938-943.[3]
  • Jahn, GC, JA Litsinger, Y Chen and A Barrion. 2007. Integrated Pest Management of Rice: Ecological Concepts. In Ecologically Based Integrated Pest Management (eds. O. Koul and G.W. Cuperus). CAB International Pp. 315-366.
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, C. Pol, B. Khiev 2000. Characterizing biotic constraints to production of Cambodian rainfed lowland rice: limitations to statistical techniques. pp. 247-268 In T. P. Tuong, S. P. Kam, L. Wade, S. Pandey, B. A. M. Bouman, B. Hardy [eds.] “Characterizing and Understanding Rainfed Environments.” Proceedings of the International Workshop on Characterizing and Understanding Rainfed Environments, 5-9 Dec. 1999, Bali, Indonesia. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). 488 p.
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev, and C. Pol. 1997. Pest management practices of lowland rice farmers in Cambodia. In K. L. Heong and M. M. Escalada [editors] "Pest Management Practices of Rice Farmers in Asia." Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 35-52. ISBN 971-22-0102-3
  • Jahn, G. C., B. Khiev, S. Pheng, and C. Pol. 1997. Pest management in rice. In H. J. Nesbitt [ed.] "Rice Production in Cambodia." Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 83-91.
  • Khiev, B., G. C. Jahn, C. Pol, and N. Chhorn 2000. Effects of simulated pest damage on rice yields. IRRN 25 (3): 27-28.
  • Leung LKP, Peter G. Cox, Gary C. Jahn and Robert Nugent. 2002. Evaluating rodent management with Cambodian rice farmers. Cambodian Journal of Agriculture Vol. 5, pp. 21-26.
  • Pheng, S., B. Khiev, C. Pol and G. C. Jahn 2001. Response of two rice cultivars to the competition of Echinochloa crus-gali (L.) P. Beauv. International Rice Research Institute Notes (IRRN) 26 (2): 36-37.
  • Preap V., M. P. Zalucki and G. C. Jahn. 2006. Brown planthopper outbreaks and management. Cambodian Journal of Agriculture 7(1): 17-25.
  • Preap, V, GC Jahn, K Hin, N Siheng. 2005. Fish and rice management system to enable agricultural diversification. Paper presented at the 5th Asia-Pacific Congress of Entomology, 18-21 Oct. 2005, Jeju, Korea.
  • Rice Research in South Asia through Ages by Y L Nene, Asian Agri-History Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005 (85–106) [4]
  • Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition Oxford: University Press, 2000.
  • Zhao, Z. 1998. The Middle Yangtze Region in China is the Place Where Rice was Domesticated: Phytolithic Evidence from the Diaotonghuan Cave, Northern Jiangxi. Antiquity 72:885-897.

Suglung Palwal

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Rice genome

  1. Smith, Bruce D. The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library, A Division of HPHLP, New York, 1998.