Phylum (biolohia)

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Deng miyayaliwang lebel o balitang ning sientipikung sistema ning pamitinduk-tinduk (scientific system of classification). Species Genus Familia Orden Pinduan Phylum (biolohia) Kaarian Sakup Bie

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Ing pamituki-tuki da reng walung pekamaulagang ranggung pang-taxonomia ning sistemang biolohikal. E la makabili deng mangalating ranggung atiu king pilatan da reti.

King biolohia, ing phylum (plural: Φῦλα phyla) metung yang ranggung pang-taxonomia king lalam ning kaarian at king babo ning pinduan o class. Indam de ing "phylum" king Griegung φυλαί phylai, deng grupu da reng magbotung makabasi king lipi (clan) kareng lakanbalen-bangsa (city-state) king Grecia o Greece kanitang minuna. Ing phylum ing pekamaragul a grupu da reng animal ampong aliwang mabibie a maki kaurian a pang-ebolusion, oneng den mismung phylum maliari la muring mi-grupu o mi-abeyabe superphylum (al., ing Ecdysozoa a maki walung phylum, kayabe la reng arthropod ampong w:roundworm; ampo ing Deuterostomia kayabe la reng echinoderm, chordate, hemichordates ampong xenoturbellae). Maliari tamung sabian a deng phylum gu-grupu na la o titipunan deng animal basi king pangkabilugan (general) a balangkas ning katawan (body plan);[1] ini ing morphological grouping o pami-grupu-grupu basi king karelang pamibalangkas. Uli na niti, lipat ning balamu pami-aliwa-liwa da reng organismu basi king itsura dang pang-lual, pitinduk-tinduk (ka-classify) da la reti kareng phylum basi king pamibalangkas dang pang-kilub.[2] Alimbawa, agiang balamu aliwa lang aliwa, pareu lang kayabe king Arthropoda deng ema ampong babagua, kabang deng bulati king gabun ampo reng tapeworms, a pareu tabas, ibat la king Annelida (king mumuna) ampong Platyhelminthes (ing kadua). Lipat ning paintulutan na ning w:International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ing pamangamit ning katayang "Phylum" para kareng tanaman, ing katayang "Division" ing keraklan dang gagamitan deng botanista.

Deng kilalang diling phylum da reng animal ila reng Mollusca, Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, ampong Chordata, ing phylum nung nu la kayabe deng tau. Agiang atlu lang pulu't lima (35) deng phylum, kayabe la kareting siam deng keraklan kareng species. Bukud la mung king dayatmalat mayayakit deng dakal a phylum, at metung ya mu ing phylum a e bitasang mayayakit king kadayatmalatan: ing Onychophora o velvet worms. Ing bayung diling metuklas a phylum ya pin ing Cycliophora[3] a metuklas mu aniang 1993; atlu la mung phylum deng mediskubri aniang milabasan a dilanua.

Ing w:Cambrian explosion metung yang tutung maragul a pamibukadkad da reng uri da reng mabibie a miliari pilatan ning mangan limang dalan atlung (530) and ampong limang dalan aduang pulung (520) miliun a banua ing milabas;[4] during this time organisms similar to, but not strictly members of, modern phyla existed;[5] kabang lato la reng aliwa king Ediacaran biota, e la pa mikasundu nung atiu na la baya itang maleparan a pamaniabug (explosion) king bilang da reng mabibie. King pangalabas ning panaun, mamaliwa ing papil da reng miayaliwang phylum. Alimbawa, aniang Cambrian, arthropod la reng makababong mangaragul a animal (dominant megafauna), kabang ngeni, den namang vertebrate (chordata) ing dominanti ngeni kareng mangaragul a animal.[6] Den pa muring arthropod ing dakal dili angga ngeni nung bilang ing pisasabian.

Maralas, magmunikala lang bayung phylum o maglako la kareng sadiang phylum deng talapanialiksik ampo reng taxonomista kapamilatan ning pamisanib ra kareng aduang phylum bang maglalang metung a bayu, o pamiabe ning metung a malati ketang mas maragul. Neng misan, maglalang lang bayung phylum para king metung a bayung tuklas a organismung balamu e bage king sanu mang phylum a melalang na, dapot kreklan, e ra makaing buri ing gagawang bayung phylum. Maralas, maliari lang isingit king metung a phylum a atiu na agpang king metung a kaurian (characteristic) a e ra apansinan aniang purmeru, o kapamilatan ning pamagparagul king phylum nung nu ya pekamalapit ya ing bayung organisum. Malagad da la mung tatanggapan tambing o deng eganagana deng pamanaliling anti kaniti, at maralas maragul ing dibati kareng kasulatan a sientipiku. Uli na niti, tutung masákit ing mamie eksaktung tala o listaan da reng phylum, o angiang mung sabian ing bilang da reti.

Lon la murin deti[mag-edit | edit source]

Dalerayan[mag-edit | edit source]

  1. Valentine, James W. (2004). On the Origin of Phyla. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 7. 0226845486. "Mararapat na ing klasipikasiun o pamitinduk-tinduk da reng organismu kareng sistema da reng herarkiya o paka-ranggu aniang kalabingpitu (17th) ampong kalabingwalung (18th) siglu o dilanua. Keraklan, paka-grupu la agpang king pamilupa-lupa ning karelang katawan deng organismu, basi king paglalawe da reng mumunang manigaral siensia, at deta namang grupung deta, pigu-grupu da la agpang king karelang pamiupa-lupa, a pababa nang pababa, bang mitikdo herarkiya o pamituki-tuki da reng ranggu:"
  2. Parker, Andrew (2003). In the blink of an eye: How vision kick-started the big bang of evolution. Sydney: Free Press, 1–4. 0743257332. "Obra ning evolutionary biologist ing manakit kabaldugan king magulung pami-aliwa-aliwa ning itsura da reng mabibie - e paneng maki kuneksiun o kaugnayan king pang-kilub ampong pang-lual a parti o dake ning metung a mabibie. Aniang mumuna da lang panigaralan deti, apansinan dang mas maulaga ing pamibalangkas dang pang-kilub deng animal kesa king tabas nang pang-lual. Maki pamag-limita o angganan king paralan nung makananu yang maglibeng angin (o gases), kumang sustansia o magparakal ing metung a mabibie."
  3. "…neng matutuklas ya ing bayung species ning animal, makananu ya man kayaliwa, keraklan, maliari yang iyabe king metung a makikilala nang grupu da reng mabibieng maki anti kanitang pamibalangkas ning katawan o phylum. Nanupata, taganang marayu ya kareng aliwa, at ala yang kalupa, ing S.pandora, at e maliaring iyabe kareng phylum a atiu na, ania mimunikala ya ing metung a bayung phylum, a inaus dang Cycliophora" [1] (URL accessed on July 5, 2006)
  4. Valentine, J.W. (1999-03-01). "Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion". Development 126: 851–859. PMID 9927587. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://dev.biologists.org/cgi/content/abstract/126/5/851. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
  5. Budd, G.E. (2000). "A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla". Biological Reviews 75 (02): 253–295. doi:10.1017/S000632310000548X. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S000632310000548X. Retrieved on 2007-05-26. 
  6. "The Cambrian Explosion … The organisms range from the prokaryotic cyanobacteria to eukaryotic green and red algae, to sponges, brachiopods, priapulids, annelids, and many different arthropod groups, as well as echinoderms and possibly one of the first chordates." [2] (URL accessed on July 5, 2006)

Suglung palual[mag-edit | edit source]

Etymology:

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Deng miyayaliwang lebel o balitang ning sientipikung sistema ning pamitinduk-tinduk (scientific system of classification). Species Genus Familia Orden Pinduan Phylum (biolohia) Kaarian Sakup Bie

Magnify-clip.png
Ing pamituki-tuki da reng walung pekamaulagang ranggung pang-taxonomia ning sistemang biolohikal. E la makabili deng mangalating ranggung atiu king pilatan da reti.