Amphibian

Ibat king Wikipedia
Lundag ka king: pamaglibut, paintunan
Amphibians
Fossil range: Carboniferous - Recent
White's Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea)
White's Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea)
Scientific classification
Kaarian: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Pinduan: Amphibia
Linnaeus, 1758
Subclasses and Orders

Order Temnospondyli - extinct
Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct
Subclass Lissamphibia
  Anura
  Caudata
  Gymnophiona

Deng amphibian (class Amphibia) metung lang taxon (grupu king klasipikasyun) da reng animal nung nu la kayabe reng eganaganang tetrapod (vertebrate a maki apat a bitis) a alang ebun a amniotic. Keraklan, ating panaun a king gabun la manuknangan, oneng e la kumabyeng laganas king gabun anti kareng aliwang makabayung tetrapod (deng amniote). Manga lima lang libu pitung dalan (5,700) deng mabyeng species da reng amphibian. Herpetology ing aus da king pamagaral kareng amphibian ampong reptile. Herpetophobia naman ing aus ketang takut kareng amphibian ampong reptile.

Ing kasalesayan da reng amphibian[mag-edit | edit source]

Linto la reng amphibian a maki kauryan anti reng pharyngeal slit/gills, nerve cord king gulut, notochord, ampong king gulut ning buldit (post-anal tail) kareng myayaliwang panaun king karelang bye. Mabibye na la manibat pa kanitang lalto la pamu deng tetrapod atlung dalan syam a pulung (390) milyun nang banwa ing milabas, kanitang panaun a Devonian, nung kapilan ila ing minunang animal a apat bitis a mika baga. Anyang tutuking panaun, ing Carboniferous, mika kagiwan lang lumakad king gabun ba rang lisyan ing kumpitensya king danum ampo reng darakap, kabang maglakbe la manibat king pilatan da reng danuman. Menatili lang dominanting animal anting metung a grupu kilub ning pitumpulu’t limang (75) milyung banwa. King kabilugan ning karelang kasalesayan, maragul ing pamiyaliwa ning karelang degulan, manibat ketang Ichthyostega kanitang Devonian a atlung pie kaba ampo itang maragul bagyang Eryops kanitang Permian, a limang pie kaba, angga kareng pekamalati, itang misnang latiktik a Brachycephalus didactylus o (Brazilian Gold Frog) ampo ing Eleutherodactylus iberia ibat Cuba, a maki pangkabilugang kabang 9.6 anggang 9.8 a millimeter.

  • Solomon Berg Martin, Biology
  • Duellman/Trueb, Biology of Amphibians

Pamag-grupu (Classification)[mag-edit | edit source]

Sadya-sadya, yabe la kareng amphibian deng eganaganang tetrapod (animal a apat a bitis) a e amniote (maki telasuput lang mitmung likidu deng karelang embryo). Keta lang mas malating grupu kayabe deng amphibian ngening panaun tamu, a yawsan dang Lissamphibia. Deta namung kayabe keting Lissamphibia ilang tuturing dang Amphibia ngeni. Ing buri nang sabyan, e no kayabe deng tetrapod a e mas malapit kareng modernung amphibian kesa kareng modernung reptile, ayup ampng mammal.

There are two ancient, extinct, subclasses: Adwa la reng subclass a ala na ngeni at mebye kanitang minunang panaun.

Itang mitatagan a modernung subclass, ing Lissamphibia, atlu ya [[Order (biologia)|order]]:

5,228 a species

E la mikasundu deng siyentipiku nung Superorder ya ing Salientia nung nu ya kayabe ing Anura, o nung sub-order ne ning order Salientia ing Anura. Ing malilyari, deng kayanib king Salientia, ila ring Anura ampo ing metung a species a proto-frog (pipumpunan da reng tugak) kanitang panaun a Triassic, ing Triadobatrachus massinoti. Balamu mas praktikal yang tukyan ngeni itang mumunang pamag-grupu.

Ing pamiparakal[mag-edit | edit source]

Karas king pamiparakal, o la midadayu king danum a tabang deng keraklan kareng amphibian. Lipat ning ating mapilan a mabibye king danum a brackish (malat- alat), alang taganang amphibian a mabibye king danum a malat. Nanupata, ating pilang dalan a species da reng tugak kareng adaptive radiation (alimbawa, deng Eleutherodactylus, Pacific Platymantines, Australo-Papuan microhylids, at dakal pang aliwang tugak kareng lugal a tropical) a e bitasang gagamit danum para kaniti. Darakal la kapamilatan ning tambing o diretsung pamanalkus (direct development), metung a pamakibage king paligid ampo king ebolusyon nung nu la mitimawa o milibri king danum a e mamagus. Mabibye la kareng tropical rainforest a mabasa deng keraklan kareng species a reti, at potang miyapsa la reng ebun da, tambing da nong kalupa da reng mangaragul a tugak, at e no maging butiti. Ating muring mapilan a species a mekibage na kareng kapaligiran a malangi o malangi- langi, dapot mangaylangan la pa muring danum a pipangebunan. Mangisnawa la reng butiti kapamilatan da reng asang. Kayapsa ra, bagya-bagya lang manaliwa deti anggang akalupa do reng mangatwa, metung a prosesung awsan dang [[metamorphosis (biologia)|metamorphosis]]. Keraklan, mamako no reti potang dagul la, dapot dakal a e tutuki king paralan a iti.

Itang pamanalto da reng apat a bitis bang mitikdo king gabun ing kapansin-pansin diling dake ning metamorphosis da reng amphibian. Nanupata, atin pang aliwang manaliwa kareti:

  • Miyayalilan lang aliwang organu ning pamangisnawa deng asang, alimbawa

bagas.

  • Manaliwa ya ing balat at mikaka en:gland ya iti ba yang e lalangi
  • Mikaka talukab la reng mata at babage la king kilwal ning danum
  • Mikaka en:eardrum ba yang misara ing libutad ning balugbug
  • Mawawala ya ing iki kareng tugak ampong karag (toad).


Lon la murin deti[mag-edit | edit source]

Deng pikwanan king lwal[mag-edit | edit source]

Template:Dichotomouskey

Department of herpetology]