Erythrocyte

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Deng erythrocyte o korpuskulos a malutu (red blood cell king Ingles) ila reng dakal diling korpuskulos, a ila muring manimunang paralan ning pamagparla king oxygen kareng katawan da reng vertebrate manibat kareng baga o asang.[1]

Deng erythrocyte o korpuskulos a malutu da reng tau

Ausan da la muring RBCs, haematids o erythrocytes deng korpuskulos a malutu (itang tauli, ibat ya king from Griegong erythros para king "malutu" ampng kytos para king "alang laman king kilub" ("hollow"); ing cyte, keraklan lilikas deng "cell" ngeni).

Ing schistocyte metung yang korpuskulos a malutung kasalungsungang mapipitna (cell fragmentation), o metung yang dakeng mebangal ning metung a korpuskulos a malutu.

Deng erythrocyte da reng vertebrate[mag-edit | edit source]

Manibat kaili anggang wanan: deng erythrocyte, thrombocyte, ampong leukocyte ning tau.

Keraklan, bibilugan dong hemoglobin deng erythrocyte. Iti metung yang komplikadung molecule a maki grupung heme, nung nu pansamantala lang misusuglung king oxygen dang atom ning iron kareng baga o asang, at tatabili ra o darake king mabilug a katawan. Malagua yang milabas (magdiffuse) ing oxygen king cell membrane da reng korpuskulos a malutu. Darala na murin ibat kareng tissue ing peka-basura ibat kareng tissue, ing carbon dioxide. (Kareng tau, makalaso (held in solution) king plasma ning daya ing kulang king aduang porsientu [2%] ning oxygen, at keraklan king carbon dioxide). Ating compound a kayawig na niti, ing [myoglobin]], a manyinup king oxygen kareng cell da reng muscle.

Ibat king grupu nang heme o heme group ning hemoglobin ing kule da reng erythrocyte. Nung ita mu kabud plasma ning daya, kakule yang are iti, dapot manaliwa la kule deng korpuskulos a malutu dependi king kabilian ning hemoglobin. Nung makataid ya iti king oxygen, malutu yang malutu itang kombinasiun a ausan dang oxyhemoglobin, at nung mitabili ne man itang oxgen, mas matuling (darker) yang bagya iti, at mayasul-asul o kayawig yang iro (bluish) ya itsura, nung mayayakit ya iting tataglus king kilual ning uyat ampong balat. Gagamitan ning pulse oxymetry iting pamanaliwa king kule ba yang sukdang diretsu ing pangakatmu nang oxygen ning daya da reng artery kapamilatan da reng paralan a colorimetric.

Metung yang maulagang takbang king pamanalkus da reng vertebrate ing pamaglulan (sequestration) da reng protinang magdalang oxygen kareng partikular (specialized) a cell (imbes na makalaso la o dissolved king likido ning katawan o body fluid). Uli na niti, mipalyari ing dayang e masyadung marayuput, mas masiksik a pamagdala king oxygen, ampong mas masaleseng pamikalat (diffusion) ning oxygen manibat king daya papunta kareng tissue. Tutung maragul ing pamiyayaliwa da reng erythrocyte kareng miyayaliwang species da reng vertebrate. Keraklan, mas maragul yang metung a kapat o beinti singku porsientu (25%) ing karaniwan a lapad da reng erythrocyte kesa king lapad ning capillary. Ukulan dang sasalese ing pamanalis ning oxygen manibat kareng erythrocyte papunta kareng tissue uli na niti.[2]

Kareng vertebrate, bukud mung deng ice fishes (family Channichthyidae) ing balu rang e gagamit erythrocyte para king pamagdala king oxygen. Mabibie la reti king danum a marimla at mitmung oxygen, at mikakalat ya ing oxygen king karelang katawan ibat king karelang daya, nung nu ya daretsung makalaso iti.[3]

Kanitang 2007, mibalitang atin la muring papil king immune response ning katawan deng erythrocyte: neng lalasawan (lysis) do reng bacteria deti, magpalual yang free radical ing karelang hemoglobin, a maglasak king cell wall ampong cell membrane ning mikrobius a magdalang sakit, at uli na niti, mamamate ya iti.[4][5]

Deng erythrocyte da reng mammal[mag-edit | edit source]

Anucleate la potang matua (mature) na la reng erythrocyte kareng mammal. Ing buri nang sabian niti, ala lang cell nucleus, at uli na niti, ala lang DNA. Atin lang nucleus potang umpisa ning kareng pamanalkus dening korpuskulos a malutu, dapat lulual de iti bang lalung mipagyu ing hemoglobin. Kumpara kaniti, atin lang nucleus deng erythrocyte da reng alus eganaganan vertebrate; ing ala mu deng salamander ning genus a Batrachoseps.[6] Mawawala la murin deng aliwang organelle da reng erythrocyte da reng mammal, alimbawa deng karelang mitochondria. Uli na niti, ala lang gagamitan deng korpuskulos a malutu ketang oxygen a daralan da; gagawa la ketang pikukuanan enerhia, ing ATP, kapamilatan ning fermentation, kapamilatan ning glucose a tutukian ning pamangawang lactic acid. Karagdagan kaniti, ala lang [[insulin receptor deng korpuskulos a malutu, at e dadalan king insulin ing pamangamit dang glucose. Uling ala lang nucleus ampong organelle, e la maglalang RNA deti, anya e ra agyung pitnan o larinan ing sarili da.

Mangabilug lang tela-pinggan a makikulkul misusumangid deng erythrocyte da reng mammal, at nung bangalan la, katabas lang dumbbell. Uli ning tabas a iti (pati ing pangawala da reng organelle ampong nucleus), lalu yang maging bage king pamaglibeng oxygen king kayang paligid ing cell. Uling mababaluktut (flexible) la reng cell, mipagyu la kareng capillary, nung nu ra lulual o tatabili itang daralan dang oxygen. Mabilug la tabas deng erythrocyte, liban kareng kameliu ibat king famiy Camelidae, nung nu la tulungkaba (oval) deti.

Kareng mangaragul a uyat, malyari lang mayakit a anting tumpak-tumpak (stack) deng korpuskulos a malutu, nung nu makatuglung ya itang gilid nang pitpit ning metung ketang metung. Ausan dang rouleaux formation iti. Mas malilyari ing anti kaniti nung matas ing lebel da reng aliwang protina ning serum, alimbawa neng malilyari ing pamangalbag.

Magsilbi yang simpanan o lulanan korpuskulos a malutu ing lape, dapot e masiadung maliliari iti kareng tau. Samantala, kareng aliwang animal, alimbawa kareng asu ampong kabayu, manipun yang dakal a erythrocyte ing lape, at bubugnus no king daya deti neng panaun alimbawa ning sobrang pagal (exertion stress), anya mas dakal ing oxygen a malyaring nang dalan ning daya.

Deng erythrocyte: (a) manibat king kilual; (b) ibat king tagiliran, a bibilug rouleaux; (c) megi lang mabilug uli ning danum; (d) mika tela-ipan la (crenate) uli ning asin. deng (c) ampong (d) e la karaniwang mayayakit king katawan.

Deng erythrocyte ning tau[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing lapad ning karaniwan a erythrocyte ning tau 6–8 µm ya - mas malati kesa karing keraklan kareng aliwang cell ning tau. Atin yang manga aduang dalan pitung pulung miliun (270 million) a molecule ning hemoglobin ing karaniwan a erythrocyte, at magdala yang apat a heme group ing balang metung kareti.

Maki manga 2–3 × 1013 lang korpuskulos a malutu deng taung maragul na (maki apat la o limang miliun deng kareng babai, balang microliter (millimetru kubiku o cubic millimeter) ning daya, at lima naman anggang anam a milium kareng lalaki; mas dakal ing kareng taung makatuknang kareng mangatas a lugal, nung nukarin mababa ing oxygen tension). Uli na niti, mas dakal a la reng korpuskulos a malutu kesa kareng aliwang dake ning daya. Ating 4,000–11,000 a w:korpuskulos a maputi ampong 150,000–400,000 a platelet king balang microliter ning daya ning tau.

King kabilugan, miraras adua puntu limang (2.5) gramu ning iron ing makabili kareng eganaganang daya ning karaniwang taung lalaking maragul na. Iti anam a pulu't limang porsientu (65%) ning eganaganang iron at atyu king katawan.[7][8] (See Human iron metabolism.)

Pikuanan[mag-edit | edit source]

  1. Laura Dean. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens
  2. SNYDER, GREGORY K. (1999-04-01). "Red Blood Cells: Centerpiece in the Evolution of the Vertebrate Circulatory System". American Zoologist 39 (2): 189-198. doi:10.1093/icb/39.2.189. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/39/2/189. 
  3. Ruud, J. T. 1954. Vertebrates without erythrocytes and blood pigment. Nature 117:848-850.
  4. Red blood cells do more than just carry oxygen. New findings by NUS team show they aggressively attack bacteria too., The Straits Times, 1 September 2007
  5. Jiang N, Tan NS, Ho B, Ding JL. Respiratory protein-generated reactive oxygen species as an antimicrobial strategy. Nature Immunology, 26 August 2007. PMID 17721536.
  6. W. D. Cohen. The cytomorphic system of anucleate non-mammalian erythrocytes. Protoplasma, vol 113 no 1, February 1982
  7. Iron Metabolism, University of Virginia Pathology. Accessed 22 September 2007.
  8. Iron Transport and Cellular Uptake by Kenneth R. Bridges, Information Center for Sickle Cell and Thalassemic Disorders. Accessed 22 September 2007.

Suglung palual[mag-edit | edit source]