Fungus

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Fungi
Fossil range: Early Silurian - Recent
Amanita muscaria, a basidiomycete
Scientific classification
Sakup: Eukaryota
Kaarian: Fungi
L., 1753
Divisions

Chytridiomycota
Zygomycota
Glomeromycota
Ascomycota
Basidiomycota

Ing fungus, metung yang eukaryotic a organismung king kilwal ning katawan na (external) maglaso king kayang pamangan. Kaybat na niti, sisipsipan no reng cell deng molecule a bibilug king sustansya. Tutu lang maulaga king kabyayan o ekonomya deng fungi. Deng lebadura ing mag-ferment o “magpaslam,” king beer at magpayalsa tinape, at maragul yang industriya ing pamagpatubu kareng payung-payungan kareng dakal a bansa. Deng fungi ing pekamaulagang maglaso (primary decomposer) da reng meteng tanaman ampong animal kareng dakal a ecosystem, at maralas lang mayayakit king lumang pan antimong kulapu deti. Nanupata, maygit pa kaniting karaniwan a balu tamu tungkul kareng fungi ing komplikadu rang biologia deti.

Ing yellow fungus

Ing penibatan phylogeny da reng fungi[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

Anyang minuna, tuturing da lang tanaman deng fungi uling heterotroph la (e ra kukunan ing sarili rang carbon kapamilata’ning photosynthesis, nun e gagamitan da ing carbon a kingwa ra, king carbon dioxide alimbawa, deng aliwang organismu.) Mas malapit dong kamaganak deng fungi deng animal kesa kareng tanaman, dapot ing pamiyaliwa ra, sisipsipan da ing karelang pamangan imbes na kakanan de o sasamul iti, at padurutan dong cell wall deng karelang cell. Uling kareng sangkan a reti, makabili no reti king sarili rang kingdom (biologia, ing Fungi.

Metung lang grupung monophyletic deng Fungi. Ing kabaldugan na niti, metung la mu pipumpunan deng eganaganang klasing fungi. Maniwala la reng mycologist (deng siyentipikung manigaral kareng fungi) a monophyletic la reti uling atin lang chitin kareng karelang cell wall at absorbtive heterotroph la (sisipsipan da ing karelang pamangan, at aliwa ila ing gagawa kaniti), bukud pa kareng aliwang kauryan o characteristic.

Pangkabilugan a paglalawe[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

Lipat ning keraklan e la maragul o kapansin-pansin deti, mayayakit la king balang kapaligiran king yatu deng fungi, at maulaga ing karelang papil king keraklan kareng ecosystem. Manimuna lang maglaso (decomposer) da reng meteng tanaman ampong animal kareng kakewan o gubat (forest) at dakal pang paligid. Parasiticu la kareng tanaman ampong animal deng dakal a fungi, pati na kareng tau. Ila ing panibatan da reng dakal a sakit, alimbawa ing lipunga ampo ing buni kareng tau ampo ing Dutch elm disease kareng tanaman. Atin namang aliwang fungi a “kasosyu” kareng pamiugnayan asymbiotic da reng algae o cyanobacteria ampong reng fungi. Makinabang la king symbiosis da reng karelang uyat o yamut ampo reng fungi deng keraklan kareng tanaman a vascular. Malwat na king kasalesayan ing pamangamit da reng tau kareng fungi. Dakal la reng fungi a kakanan, kayabe no reng myayaliwang payung-payungan antimo reng button mushroom, shiitake mushroom, ampong oyster mushroom. Ita mu pin, dakal no man deng payung-payungan a makalasun, at panibatan da reng dakal a kasu ning pangasakit opangamate. Gagamitan de king pamangawang tinape ampong alak ing metung a uring fungus a awsan dang lebadura (yeast). Gagamitan da la murin deng fungus king pamangawa kareng sangkap o kemikal a pang-industriya antimo ing lactic acid, at king pamangawang pamangawang stonewashed. Atin namang uring fungi a kakanan da para king epektung psychedelic, king sangkan mang pamaglibang (recreational drug use) o pang-relihiyun (anting entheogen.

Deng Uri da reng Fungi[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

Pipitnan do reng manimunang grupu da reng fungi dikil king kareng dake rang gagamitan king pamiparakal o reproduction. Lima la reng Division a kikilalanan da reng mycologist (deng siyentipikung manigaral kareng fungi) king salukuyan:

  • Chytrid ing karaniwan a aus kareng Chytridiomycota. Gagawa lang zoospore deti a makagalong dili ra king likidung mesnstrua kapamilatan da reng simpling flagella
  • Zygomycete ing aus da kareng Zygomycota, a darakal king sexual a paralan kapamilatan da reng meiospore a awsan dang zygospore. Kayabe ya king grupung iti ing matuling a kulapung tinape (black bread mold o Rhizopus). Metung ya muring alimbawa na niti ing Pilobolus, a mamasibas ispesyal a bini a pilang metru darasan king angin. Iti ing penibatan na lagyu nitang modern dance troupe o grupu ning makabayung terak.
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi murin ing aus da kareng kayabe king Glomeromycota. Metung ya mung species ing apansinan dang maki zygospore; asexual mu ing paralan a gagamitan da retang aliwa. Kanita ya pang minunang panaun (350 mybp) ing grupung iti.
  • Sac fungi (a malyaring ilikas a “kulapung súput”) o ascomycete ing karaniwan a aus kareng Ascomycota. Makabalut la reti king espesyal a lulanan a awsan dang ascus. Kayabe la king dibisyun o grupung iti deng morel, mapilang payung-payungan, ampong truffle, at pati na reng lebadura at aliwang fungi a

tunggal mu cell, a kayabe kareng dakal a species darakal mu keng paralang asexual. Uling manatili lang makapalub king mala-súput a ascus deng bunga ning meiosis, gagamitan do reng maplian a uring ascomycete king pamipalino kareng tuntunan ning genetics ampo ing pamamuli o heredity (alimbawa, ing Neurospora crassa).

  • Gagawa lang meiospore a awsan dang dang basidiospore kareng tangkeng lupang batuta (club-shaped) a awsan dang basidium. Kayabe la keti reng keraklan kareng karaniwang payung-payungan, ampo reng rust at smut fungi, a kayabe kareng manimunang magdalang sakit kareng binutil (grains).

Agyang sadya rong bibili king Kingdom Fungi deng water mold ampong slime mold, at panigaralan do pa murin deng mycologist angga ngeni, e la sadyang fungi deti. E anti kareng tutung fungi, e la gawa king chitin deng cell wall da reng water mold ampong slime mold. Ketang e na makaing bayung sistemang maki limang Kingdom, makabili la reti king lalam ning Kingdom Protista.

Pamibalangkas[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

Malyari lang tunggal mu cell (unicellular o single-celled) o dakal a cell (multicellular) deng fungi. Bibilugan dong sala-saláng mangakaba’t mangapinung tela-tubong awsan dang hyphae deng fungi a multicellular. Makabili ya ing mycelium ketang pitutubwanan (substrate) nung nu ya kukwang sustansya ing fungus. Uling pakakutkut la ketang materyal nung la tutubu deng fungus, keraklan e ta la karaniwang akakit.

Lipat ning kulang la kareng tutung organu deng fungi, malyari lang miyabe-yabe at bumilug lalung komplikadung parting awsan dang fruiting body, o sporocarp, neng ustu la reng kundisyun o kabilyan. ”Payung-payungan” ing karaniwan a yaus kareng fruiting body dang atyu babo gabun deng dakal a species da reng fungus. Agyang dening parting atyu babo gabun ing apapansinan da keraklan deng tau, malati na la mung dake ning pangkabilugan a katawan ning fungus.

Sasabyan dang ing maragul diling organismu king yatu yapin ing metung a Armillaria ostoyae a tutubi king kakewan (gubat o forest) king dake aslagan ning Oregon, USA. Miras yang walung dalan at siyan a pulung ektarya (890 ha) ing sala-saláng mycelium a atyu a atyu lalam gabun.

Pamiparakal[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

Malyari lang dakal king sexual o asexual a paralan deng fungi. King pamiparakal a sexual, pareu lang pareu deng supling kareng “pengaring” organismu. King pamiparakal a sexual, misasamut ing sangkap a genetic (genetic material), anya atyu la kareng supling deng kauryan (traits) da reng adwang pengari. Pareu dong gagamitan deng adwang paralan a reti deng dakal a species dependi keng panaun, kabang atin namang purus sexual a asexual ing paralan a gagamitan da. E pa meyakit ing pamiparakal a sexual king Glomeromycota o kareng ascomycete. Karaniwan, awsan dong Fungi imperfecti o Deuteromycota deng Glomeromycota.

Agyu rang dakal deng lebadura ampo reng aliwang unicellular a fungi kapamilatan ning budding, ing “pamanagtal” (“pinching off”) ning metung a bayung cell. Myayaliwa lang uring spore deng gagawan da reng dakal a multicellular species, a malagwang mikakalat at mabibye agyang kareng paligid nung nu masákit kumabye. Neng ustu ing kabilyan ning paligid at panaun, tutubu la reng spore a reti, at magparakal la kareng bayung kapaligiran.

Aliwang bagya ing pamiparakal a sexual kareng fungi kumpara kareng animal ampong tanaman, at aliwa ya paralan o estratehiya ing balang division o uri da reng fungi. Atin lang panaun a haploid, at atin lang panaun a diploid, king bye da reng fungi a darakal king paralan a sexual. Den namang ascomycete ampong basidiomycete, atin lang panaun a dikaryotic, nung nu e la tambing misasanib deng cell nucleus a amanu da reng adwang pengari, nun e manatili lang mikakawani kareng cell ning hypha.

Kareng namang zygomycete, misasanib la reng haploid a hypha da reng adwang mibabageng (compatible) a indibidwal, at iti magbunga yang zygote, a maging metung a matibeng zygospore. Ustung tinubu ya iting zygospore, e maglwat at dumalan ya king meiosis, at ating laltong bayung hyphae ampong asexual a sporangiospore. Malyari lang mikalat deting sporangiospore, at katubu ra, magi lang bayung fungus a pareung pareu sangkap a genetic, at gagawa yang sarili nang haploid hyphae ing balang metung. Neng mitagkil la reng hyphae da reng adwang fungus a mibabage, misasanib la reti, gagawa lang bayung zygospore, at magi yang ganap o kumpletu ing durut (cycle).

Kareng ascomycete, neng misasanib reng mibabageng haploid hyphae, e la tambing misasanib deng karelang nucleus. Ating laltong parting awsan dang ascus kareting dikaryotic (adwa nucleus) a hyphae, nung nukarin malilyari ing karyogamy o pamisanib da reng nucleus. Makapalub la king ascocarp o fruiting body ning fungus dening ascus. Kabud milyari ing karyogamy, katuki ne man ing meiosis, ampo ing pamangawa kareng ascospore. Mikakalat la reting ascospore, at ustung tinubu la, gagawa lang bayung haploid mycelium. Malyari ya muring gawang asexual a comidium ing haploid a mycelium. Ing lalto, dakal na kareng ascomycete ing e na makapagparakal king sexual a paralan, at darakal na la mu kapamilatan da reng conidia.

Kawangis ne nitang kareng ascomycete ing sexual reproduction da reng basidiomycete. Misasanib la reng mibabageng haploid hypha at mikaka dikaryotic mycelium, at potang kayi, ating laltong basidiocarp. Deng payung-payungan ing kilalang dili kareng basidiocarp, pero dakal la pang aliwang uri. Gagawa lang haploid a basidiospore detang parting lupang batutang awsan dang basidia, at kaybat na niti, malilyari ing karyogamy ampong meiosis. Tutubu la reting basidiospore bang gawang bayung haploid mycelia.

Deng fungus a malyaring kanán, ampo retang makalasun[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

Kayabe la kareng pekakilalang fungus deng payung-payungan a apapangan, ampo retang makalasun. Dakal lang species deng tatanam da, oneng atin muring pupupulan a tutubung dili ra. Deng button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) ing laganap diling species, a magagamit kareng salad, sopas at dakal pang aliwang lutu. Kayabe la murin king species a iti deng Portobello mushrooms, oneng maragul lang maragul deti. Kayabe la murin kareng mitatanam a payung-payungan a masasali kareng tindaan deng oyster mushroom, shiitake, at enoki mushroom.

Lalu lang dakal deng payung-payungan a tutubu namu kabud at pupupulan da reng tau para king sarili rang gamit o ba lang ipisali. Mangatas la ngan alaga deng morel, en:chanterelle, en:truffle, black trumpet, at porcini mushroom (a awsan da muring bolete).

Makalasun la kareng tau deng pilang dalan a species da reng payung-payungan, at ing pamamangan kareti panibatan ning sakit atyan, hallucination, at neng kayi, kamatayan. Kayabe la king genus a Amanita deng mapilan kareng makalasun dili, kayabe no reng A. virosa (ing "Destroying Angel") ampo ing A. phalloides (ing "Death Cap").

Dakal muring malalasun king Fly agaric, dapot malagud mung ating mamamate kaniti. Ding lyu, pamanyuka, tundu, ampong hallucination ing mapilan kareng maralas diling sintomas. Ing tutu, magagamit ya ing species a iti kareng ritwal, ampong anting libangan, uling kaniting epektu nang hallucination.

Deng pikwanan[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]

Kaminstein, D. 2002. "Mushroom poisoning".] Last accessed 5 January 2006.

Suglung a palwal[mag-edit | alilan ya ing pikuwanan]