Pamiparakal

Ibat king Wikipedia
Lundag ka king: pamaglibut, paintunan

Ing Pamiparakal o reproduction ing biological a prosesu nung nu mikaka bayung organismu. Kauryan (characteristic) de ring eganaganang mabibye ing pamiparakal; atyu ing balang indibidwal uli ning pamiparakal.

Mapipitna la kareng adwang mangaragagul a grupu deng balu tamung paralan ning pamiparakal, deng sexual ampong asexual reproduction. King asexual reproduction, malyari yang dakal ing metung a indibidwal agyang alang aliwang indibidwal ning species a ita. Metung yang karaniwang alimbawa ning asexual reproduction ing pamipitna ning celula ning bacteria kareng adwang daughter cell. Nanupata, e ya makalimita kareng organismung tunggal celula.

Ita namang sexual reproduction, mangaylangan yang adwang indibidwal ning species, keraklan metung ning balang sex. Metung yang alimbawa ning sexual reproduction ing normal a pamiparakal da reng tau. Keraklan, sexual ing paralan ning pamiparakal da reng mas komplikadung organismu, kabang asexual reproduction ing gagamitan da reng mas simpling organismu, lalu na retang unicellular.

Asexual reproduction[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing asexual reproduction ing prosesung biological nung nu gagawa yang kopya nang kapareu na kauryan a genetic (genetically similar) ing metung a organismu a e kukwang ambag o kontribusyon ibat kng aliwang indibidwal. Keraklan, mapipitna la reng bacteria king paralan a asexual kapamilata’ning binary fission; deng namang virus, sasakupan do reng karelang host cell at gagamitan do reti bang gawang karagdagan a virus; deng hydra (invertebrate ning order Hydroidea) ampong yeast agyu rang dakal kapamilata’ning budding. E la mikakawani deng sex da rening organismung deti, at agyu rong “hangalan” (split) deng katawan da king adwa o maygit pang dake, at apatubu rong pasibayu deng dake ning karelang katawan. Ating 'asexual' a species, antimo ing hydra ampong jellyfish, a malyaring dakal king sexual a paralan. Alimbawa, agyu rang dakal kapamilata’ning vegetative reproduction deng keraklan kareng tanaman, a e gagamit butul o spore, pero agyu da muring dakal kapamilata’ning sexual reproduction, king pollination. Makanyan la murin deng bacteria, a malyaring milibe impormasyon a genetic kapamilata’ning [[:en:bacterial conjugation|conjugation]]. Deng aliwang paaralan ning asexual reproduction ila pin deng fragmentation ampong spore formation.

Ing sexual reproduction[mag-edit | edit source]

Ing sexual reproduction prosesu yang biological nung nu la gagawang supling deng organismu kapamilata’ning pamisamut king materyal a genetic a random a makukwa kareng adwang aliwang kayabe king species. Adwa lang myayaliwang sex deng organismung deti, lalaki ampong babai. Ing balang metung kareti, yang babye king kapitna ning DNA ning bayung organismu, at gagawa yang haploid a gene. Misasanib la reng adwang gamete, ba yang lunto ing metung a diploid a zygote.

Darakal la king paralang sexual deng tau, keraklan kareng animal, ampo reng tanaman a manyampaga (flowering plants]]. Kareng mammal, milulupa la reng supling ampo reng karelang matwa, dapot kareng aliwang animal, antimo reng mariposa o talubang, maragul la pamiyaliwa reng supling.

Adwa lang grupu reng gene da reng organismung darakal king sexual a paralan (allele ing aus da kareti) para king balang kauryan (trait). Metung yang allele ing amamana da reng supling king balang pengari para king balang kauryan, anya siguradu lang kumbinasyun da reng gene da reng pengari ding miras kareng supling. Uli na niting pamisamut da reng gene balang dai o henerasyun, mikaka masikan a “selective pressure” (pamamiling maki-direksyun) bang mika mangasanting yang gene ing organismu, at mye ya king kayang paligid. Metung pa, uling atin yang adwang kopya ning balang gene ing organismu, a metung ya mu ing ma-expressed o lalto, malyari lang mitakpan (masked) deng allele a matsura o makarok (deleterious), metung a bentahing mapalyaring megi nang sangkan nung bakit linto ya kapamilatan ning evolution ing diploidy. (Otto and Goldstein).

Ing Mitosis ampo ing Meiosis[mag-edit | edit source]

Dake no ning cell division o pamipitna king cell deng Mitosis ampong meiosis. Malilyari ing Mitosis kareng somatic cells, kabang ing meiosis, karen namang gametes mararapat.

Ing Mitosis[mag-edit | edit source]

Dobli ne ning orihinal o sadyang bilang da reng cell ing magi rang bilang kaybat nang milyari ning mitosis. Pareu ing bilang da reng chromosome kareng daughter cell ampo kareng parent cell.


Mitosis.jpg

Ing Meiosis[mag-edit | edit source]

Makatapat ya ing bilang da reng cell a magbunga king meiosis ketang sadya rang bilang. Kareng cell a reti, kapitna no mu ning bilang da reng pengaring cell ing bilang da reng supling a cell. Babye yang adwang haploid a cell ing balang diploid a cell. Malilyari ini kilub da reng adwang dake, ing meiosis I ampong meiosis II.


Kaparalanan king pamiparakal[mag-edit | edit source]

Dakal la’t myayaliwa reng paralan a gagamitan da reng aliwa-aliwang species ba lang dákal. Ating mapilan a animal, antimo ing tau ampo ing [[Northern Gannet]], a mánaya pamung dakal a banwa bau la miras king edad a malyari lang mika anak, at karas king panaun a ita, ditak la mu maging anak. Den namang aliwa, malagwa lang darakal, oneng keraklan, neng normal a panaun, ditak la mu reng mabibye at miraras king ustung edad. Alimbawa, mikaka 10–30 ya supling kilub ning pabanwa ing kunehu (a malyari nang manganak kaybat ning walung bulan), kabang ing fruit fly (10–labing apat a yaldo) malyari yang mika syam a ralan (900) a supling balang banwa. Ing aus da kareting paralan a reti, K-selection (ditak a supling) ampong [[r- selection]] (dakal a supling). Magdependi kareng myayaliwang kundisyun nung sanung paralan ing papaboran ning evolution. Para kareng animal a ditak mu anak, malyari reng sikaswan masalese at ipamingwa (protektan) ing balang metung kareti, anya e no kaylangang mika dakal a anak. Samantala, deta namang animal a dakal anak, mas ditak ing ibye rang pamanasikasu king balang metung kareti. Kareng animal a reti, mamamate la reng dakal kareng supling da potang bayu-bayu la pamung mibait, dapot ustu la pa murin bilang detang mitagan ba yang manatili itang karelang populasyun.

Ing pamiyaliwa ning Asexual ampong sexual reproduction[mag-edit | edit source]

Keraklan, darakal la king paralan a exponential deng organismung darakal kapamilata’ning asexual reproduction. Nanupata, uling mamasa la king mutation ba yang manaliwa ing karelang DNA, miwawangis la keinan (vulnerability o weakness) deng eganaganang kayanib ning species. E ro kalupa deng organismung darakal king paralan a sexual, a mas ditak supling, oneng uling king maragul a pamiyaliwa-liwa (variation) da reng karelang gene, e la gad sasakit anti reng aliwa.

Dakal la reng organismung darakal king paralan a sexual ampong asexual. Ing alimbawa kareti, deng aphid, slime mold, sea anemone, at dakal kareng tanaman. Nung pabor karela ing kabilyan ning kapaligiran, magagamit ya ing asexual reproduction, alimbawa nung dakal ing pamangan, atin lang masaleseng tuknangan, masanting ing klima, alang sakit, makapabor ya ing pH, o aliwa pang kombinasyun da reng kaylangan king bye. Uli na niti, darakal la king paralang exponential deng karelang populasyun ba rang samantalanan ing kasaplalan (rich supply) da reng sustansya ampo reng aliwang pamangaylangan.

Istung megisan no reng pikukwanan pamangan, maging matsura ne ing klima, o mibibili king panganib ing bye ning indibidwal a organismu, mamalis la king kaparalanan ning pamiparakal a sexual deti. Sisiguradwan na ning pamiparakal a sexual a misasamut ya ing gene pool na ning species. Uli na ning pamiyaliwa- liwa (variation) da reng supling, mas bage lang kumabye reng aliwang indibidwal, at iti babye yang pamikatagun a marapat ing selective adaptation. Metung pa, metung nang bunga ning pamiparakal a sexual ing pamanalto ning metung a life stage o panaun ning bye a mas maki resistensyang o kagiwan a kumabye lipat da reng kabilyang mapanganib o peligrosu king bye ning pengaring asexual. Anya pin atilu reng butul (seeds), spore, ebun, pupa, cyst, at aliwa pang panaun ning bye (stage) king pamiparakal a sexual (sexual reproduction) a “over-wintering” (paralan ba lang kumabye alimbawa neng winter o karimlan, nung kapilan masakit ing bye). Paralan la reti bang “manaya’ neng matsura ing sitwasyun/kabilyan o klima, angga king sumanting pasibayu iti.

Ing Red Queen hypothesis[mag-edit | edit source]

Pekakilala ya ing pamiparakal a sexual antimong metung a paralan a babyeng pamibage king kapaligiran a alang patugut king pamanaliwa, uling iti magdala yang pamiyaliwang phenotypic king populasyun. E mu pangkilwal ing pamiyaliwang manibat king pamiparakal a sexual (alimbawa ing pamanalto da reng sagu o pamipekat-pekat da reng taliri) nun e physiological murin iti (makaapektu angga king prosesu ning bye). Agyang king hypothesis a awsan dang Red Queen Hypothesis, ing pamiparakal a sexual a magbunga king pamiyaliwa-liwa metung yang an evolutionary arms race laban kareng parasitiku anti murin kareng sangkan a pangkapaligiran. Uli ning pamiyaliwang ibat king pamiparakal a sexual, mas magkasákit lang “misane” deng parasitiku king karelang host (itang tutuknangan da), at uli na niti, e la masyadung matalab (less efficient). Nanupata, ing peka ideya ning hypothesis a ini, alang patugut ing pamag-evolve da reng parasitiku, anya taglus-taglus la muring manaliwa, dapot anti la mong e mamalis pusisyun king metung at metung. Mamalis la king pamiparakal a sexual deng organismung makapamili king sexual at asexual reproduction neng darakal lang masyadu king metung a populasyun deng pathogen o organismung magdalang sakit. 3

Ing byeng e menibat king pamiparakal[mag-edit | edit source]

Dakal a pamibule-bule o pamanisip (speculation) tungkul king tema ning byeng e menibat king pamiparakal da reng mabibye (life without reproduction). Nanupata, e ustung palage itang sasabyan dang uling misuglung-suglung o mikakamaganak la reng eganaganang mabye king yatu, mika panaun kanitang milabas a maki metung a indibidwal a yang pipumpunan da reng eganaganang organismu. Agpang kaniting palageng iti, ala yang reproductive origin o e ibat king aliwang mabibye ing indibidwal a iti. Nanupata, ing tutu, deng populasyun ning species ila pin deng darakal, at e mu kabud ing metung a indibidwal ing magdilidiling pipumpunan ning metung a species a dínalan king evolution. Ating e tutuki kaniti (exceptions), alimbawa deng “sport” (mutation) a paparakalan da king paralan a vegetative (asexual), dapot lalto la pa murin deti kapamilatan ning pamiparakal o reproduction da reng mabibye.

Ngening panaun tamu, isipan da pa murin deng siyentipiku nung malyaring maglalang king bye king paralang non-reproductive (itang e magdependi king pamiparakal da reng aliwang mabibye) king laboratoryu. Atin nang metung a grupu da reng siyentipikung mekapaglalang virus a purus ibat kareng materyal a e mabye. Mas masákit a e mu nanu kesa kaniti ing pamangawa king organismung tutung mabibye, alimbawa ing simpling bacterium, a yalang bitasang pipumpunan.

Katatawlyan, metung yang kapaniwalan da reng dakal a relihyun ing byeng e menibat king pamiparakal da reng mabibye Creation myths. Alimbawa, i Adan king Biblia, lelangan ne ning Dios, at ala yang pipumpunan.

Ing pamiparakal da reng makina[mag-edit | edit source]

Metung yang manimunang pakikwanan ning larangan da reng robot ing makagawang makinang magparakal dili ra (self-replicating machines). Uling miwangis-wangis la kauryan (features) deng eganaganang robot (ngening panaun tamu), malyari tamung sabyang deng makatuki ilang kaylangan nang gawan ning metung a robot (o grupu da reng robot) a magparakal dili na:

  • Mangalap kareng gamit a kaylangan
  • Gawang bayung pyesa
  • Munyeng pikukwanan enerhiya
  • I-program la reng bayung makina o robot

E ra pa murin agagawa ing anti kaniti angga ngeni.

King lebel a nanotechnical, malyari la muring iplanu deng nanomachine ba lang dákal dili ra. Ini ing penibatan ning teoryang "[[:en:gray goo]]" ning Armageddon, a yang tema da reng nobelang science fiction antimo ing Bloom ampo ing Prey.

Lon la murin deti[mag-edit | edit source]

pamiparakal a sexual uling panibatan ne ning pamiyaliwa-liwa.

παρθενος, "virgin", + γενεσις, "pangabait") at ing kabalduga’na, itang pamandagul ampong pamanalkus (growth and development) ning embryo o butul/biní agyang alang fertilization ibat king lalaki.

Deng pikwanan[mag-edit | edit source]

  1. S. P. Otto and D. B. Goldstein. "Recombination and the Evolution of Diploidy".

Genetics. Vol 131 (1992): 745-751.

  1. Pang, King Chee "Certificate Biology: New Mastering Basic Concepts", Hong Kong,

2003.

  1. Zimmer, Carl. "Parasite Rex: Inside the Bizarre World of Nature's Most

Dangerous Creatures", New York: Touchstone, 2001.

Suglung a palwal[mag-edit | edit source]

[http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/AsexualReproduction.ht ml Asexual Reproduction]